Thursday, December 31, 2009

Two Stroke Mods.......

Squish band thickness is the distance between the piston and the cylinder head where the piston meets the cylinder bore. If the squish clearance and width is set to an optimal amount, then the fuel is burned efficiently. If the squish distance is too great then the fuel in the squish band is not burned and the engine runs very “dirty”. It is inefficient and does not produce optimal power.
The squish band is a very important part of head mods and this is where I spend alot of time. Just getting the proper squish band without going overboard on the compression will give great results - Delivering “HORSEPOWER” and “RELIABILITY”
Head modification is more than just raising compression. It is a way to help your engine breath, burn more of the available fuel, and help cool. All of this will give you better snap, rev and torque with great reliability.


If the squish band thickness is not optimal, the cylinder head can be machined to correct this clearance. After the new squish clearance is achieved the head is then cc’ed and the combustion chamber is re-machined to the desired compression to meet the owner’s needs. It is also necessary for the owner to provide an accurate baseline compression measurement. The head is then machined to set proper squish and the combustion chamber is reshaped to provide the desired amount of compression.

Overall compression and compression ratios are typically set up for proper operation at sea level. Low air densities at higher altitudes will, in turn, lead to low compression readings. If the bike’s owner knows that they will not venture to lower altitudes - the head can be machined to provide appropriate compression for their altitude range.

Compression can be “set” higher if the rider wishes to use race fuel. It should be noted that increasing compression will shift power lower in the power band - giving up top end power along the way (all other things equal). So “more” isn’t always better, it depends on what you wish to achieve.

Read and understand the following before measuring squish

These test solders are my only link into your engine so that I know what needs to be done without actually having the engine in front of me. So, it is very important that you pay close attention to the process and do the solder tests with great care. Your head will be modified using these solders that you have provided me.

As you can see in the example pic below, the solder lays flat across the top of the piston with a small "camel hump" that also lays flat on the piston. The reason for the small hump is to allow you to either pull the ends farther apart or push the ends closer together, to get the ends of the solder to rub on the cylinder wall. The hump of the solder is to lay flat on top of the piston also, this will keep the solder from moving around (you can put a small dab of grease on the hump to help hold it in place).

It is also very important that the hump shape of the solder does not come in contact with the squish band area.

One last note before you go on to the actual Measuring Squish , make sure that the ends of the solder touch the cylinder wall on both sides and that both ends are cut blunt and clean. Again I can not stress enough the importance of the solder tests, send at least 2 to 3 tests, they are easy to do.

Measuring Squish

The best and easiest way to measure the squish is by using a piece of rosin-core-solder. You can buy this from local hardware stores or places like radio shack. The solder needs to be thick enough to smash slightly but not so thick as to bind the engine. After you do it a few times, you will get the hang of it.

On the stock GasGas head the clearance is usually around .090+” so this means you will need your piece of solder to be 3/32” or .093” to .125”, If you can not find 3/32” rosin-core-solder, try and find 1/8” rosin-core or acid-core solder. DO NOT use solder such as the types used for plumbing.

You will need to remove the head and remove the flywheel side cover so that you can access the flywheel nut to rotate the crankshaft (in most cases you can rotate the flywheel by hand) Do Not use the kick starter. Now rotate until the piston is about 1/4” to 3/8” below top dead center (TDC).

You will then need to bend the solder into a shape shown in photo 1. The solder needs to lay right across the center line of the piston pin. Make sure the ends of the solder touches the bore of the cylinder on both sides. You can use a small dab of grease on the hump shape that should be laying flat on the top of the piston.

Solder in cylinder

Next install the head and snug it down with the head nuts. Note that you do not need to install the o-ring during this process. DO NOT use the kickstarter to rotate the engine. Remove the spark plug. Using a wrench on the crankshaft nut carefully turn the crank shaft rotating the piston over TDC, you will feel a slight bind and this is normal. Keep the piston near TDC throughout the process. There is absolutely no need to move the piston any lower than 1/4" below TDC. Do not allow the piston to pass below the ports. Slowly rotate back and forth through TDC a couple of times couple of times and then remove the head.

You will see where the solder was smashed and this is your current squish band clearance. It can be measured with calipers. You will need to send this to me with the head so I can re-cut your head for a closer clearance.

Hope this helps, oh and by the way you may want to smash several pieces of solder and send them all. NOTE!!!!! You must use Rosin Core or acid core Solder not solid or plumbing solder (solid core will not smash as well, and the reading will not be correct as there will be a preload that won’t measure).

About the Author :

Ron Black of RB-Designs has been building race engines of all kinds and his own custom race parts since 1970. He gained experience working side by side with many “old school engineers”. He has built 3 dyno's and has been running them since the early 70's. He has one of these dynos in his shop.

Over the years, he designed a number of motorcycle service departments and managed many of these. He designed his brother’s shop and worked with him for about 12 years prior to starting his own shop 10 years ago.

He has worked with both the Yamaha Road Racing Team and with Kawasaki’s motocross R&D department. He has spent the majority of his life designing reliable high performance parts.

By Ron Black of RB-Designs

Thursday, December 10, 2009


The primary objective of the lubricant is reduction of friction caused between moving parts of engine. This in turn helps to increase life of the engine. Specialized lubricants such as hydraulic or transmission oils perform additional functions. Lubricants are also used as coolants, to reduce the heat that is produced by the engine.
Reduces Friction ________________________________________________________________
This result in reduction of energy required to operate the mechanism and also reduces local heat generation. It forms a fluid film that keeps one moving surface out of direct contact with the opposing surface.
Reduces Wear & Tear ____________________________________________________________
Additives in the lubricants lay down a chemical film that protects wear and tear. Oil additives that reduce friction contribute to the energy efficiency of the vehicle.
Cooling of Engine _______________________________________________________________
Lubricants work as an initial heat transfer agent in engine between some parts heated by combustion and the heat dissipating systems. Lubricants reduce heat generated by friction or the mechanical work performed. Circulation of the lubricant transfer heat away from hot surfaces, warms cold surfaces, and transports debris and contaminants to the filter.
Anti-corrosion __________________________________________________________________
Oil can become acidic and corrode metals because of its own degradation or by combustion contamination. Moist environments and lack of use can also cause rusting. Lubricants act as anti-corrosion agents and prevent any degradation.
Cleaning _______________________________________________________________________
Deposits such as “solid carbon”, “varnish”, or “sludge” can interfere with the correct and efficient operation of the equipment. Piston rings may become stuck and oil passages get blocked. Lubricants can prevent this by improving viscosity control of oils.
Sealing ________________________________________________________________________
Lubricants assist in forming seals between pistons and cylinders. High-quality oils can provide increased bearing protection.
Help Save Costs ________________________________________________________________
Good quality lubricants reduces drain interval of oil which leads to savings of costs in terms of material, labor and equipment downtime.
Choosing the proper viscosity grade for the ambient temperature of your geographic location becomes vitally important.
To lubricate and provide protection to the engine and improving its performance, the viscosity (the measure of the Oil’s thickness or resistance to flow) of the engine oil should be capable of holding up the engine’s extreme temperature conditions. Oil thins when heated and thickens when cooled.
There are mono-grade oils whose viscosity is defined at only one temperature, either high or low. A multi-grade meets both high and low temperature viscosity requirements simultaneously. These are easily recognized by dual viscosity designations like 15W40, 10W30 etc. For instance in case of 15W40, 15W is the low temperature designation and the 40 is the high temperature designation.
It is the viscosity modifier additive that produces a thickening effect at high temperatures but is dormant at low temperatures.
The vehicle handbook generally specifies the right grade of oil for the car under specific environmental conditions

Viscosity Grade Temperature Conditions Descriptions
5W-30 Below 0°F Mostly used in the ultra modern automobile models
Excellent fuel economy
Low temperature performance


10W-30 Above 0°F Most frequently recommended for most automobile
engines like high-performance multi-valve engines
and turbo-charged engines


10W-40 Above 0°F For controlling engine wear and tear
For preventing oil breakdown from oxidation


20W-50 Above 20°F For maximum protection for high-performance, high-
RPM racing engines.
Very good choice for high temperature and heavy
loads, e.g. driving in the desert or towing a trailer
at high speeds for long periods.


SAE 30 Above 40°F For cars and light trucks


SAE 40 Above 60°F Not recommended when cold-temperature starting
is required




Due to technical problem, unable to upload second part of Honda EC U controlled ABS system

Thursday, December 3, 2009

Saturday, November 28, 2009

Carbssssssssss!!!!!!!!! VOL 2,,,,

The essential fuel delivery systems are:

#1- The Pilot Circuit (also called the primary, low speed or idle circuit) consists of a brass fuel jet, called the pilot jet (in the float bowl), the pilot mixture screw (PMS), and the pilot air-correction jet (in the perimeter of the carb’s “mouth”). The Pilot circuit delivers its air/fuel mixture through a small hole in the carb’s “throat”, just downstream of where the throttle plate’s lower edge almost touches the carb bore. The pilot circuit regulates the fuel mixture at idle and small throttle openings, typically under one-quarter throttle. The pilot air
correction jet (the small brass piece in a recess to the left of a bigger hole at the bottom of the carb “mouth” in the photo above) admits air to the pilot system, through a channel cast into the carb body, above the pilot jet, and it serves as a fuel/air ratio modifier and emulsion improver. This system can only deliver fuel to the engine by utilizing a strong intake vacuum to “suck” the fuel from up the float bowl.

#2- The Midrange Circuit, which is actually a component of the Main system (below), is comprised of the needle, needle jet, slide assembly and throttle plate assembly. The slide has a diaphragm attached to its top, which serves to isolate the chamber above the slide from atmospheric conditions below it. SU brand carbs and some early motorcycle (Honda) and automotive (Datsun) CV carburetors had a piston-shaped top on the slide, which ran up & down in a machined “cylinder” in the carb top-half. It did the same thing as today’s diaphragm, but it was heavy, more expensive and less responsive to throttle input. The needle, which hangs from the bottom of the slide and moves up & down within the orifice of the needle jet, acts as a “fuel-throttle”, by having a tapered shape to nearly close the needle jet’s opening when the slide is at its lowest position and then to allow full gas flow at its highest position. The midrange system regulates the air/fuel mixture between approximately one-quarter throttle and near-wide open throttle (WFO) and, like the Main Circuit, of which it is a component, it relies on the Venturi Effect to draw fuel up from the float bowl. (Keep reading)

#3- The Main Circuit’s ultimate components include the entire midrange system (above) PLUS the main jet, emulsion tube (between the main jet and the needle jet) and the main-air correction jet (in the perimeter of the carb’s “mouth”, opposite the pilot air correction jet). The function of the main jet is to limit the total amount of fuel available to the engine at wide-open throttle. The main air correction jet admits air to the main system, through a cast-in channel that connects to the emulsion tube directly above the main jet, and that air also acts as a fuel/air ratio modifier and emulsion improver. While the midrange system uses fuel delivered through the main jet and air from the main correction jet, those jets have little-to-no effect on metering the fuel/air mixture at less than wide open throttle.

#4- The Starter or Enrichener Circuit: There is no true “choke” in the Road Star carb, or in most modern motorcycle carburetors. That’s because, rather than strangling the intake tract of its air (as real chokes do), it has a circuit that infuses extra fuel directly into the intake tract, there by enrichening the fuel/air mixture. The enrichener system (we’ll call it a choke for simplicity from now on) requires high intake vacuum downstream of the throttle plate to work. So opening the throttle during startup will actually reduce the choke’s ability to do its job. If the throttle is opened significantly, the “choke” may completely stop delivering any extra fuel, until the throttle is closed enough to regain a high vacuum downstream of the throttle plate. Essentially, if the engine is cold enough to need “choke” to start, leave the throttle grip alone when you hit the starter button.

#5- The deceleration enrichener system is a small device mounted to the side of the carb, containing a small diaphragm and spring. It adds an additional measure of fuel during the very high intake vacuum that exists during closed-throttle deceleration at road speeds. Its function is to help reduce exhaust backfiring during deceleration. It is not common to all modern motorcycles and it has no readily adjustable functions.

#6- The accelerator pump is just what it sounds like. It is a small plunger which gives a squirt of raw gas into the intake tract, when the throttle is applied from idle or near idle. (The brass accelerator pump nozzle protrudes laterally into the carb intake, in the photo above) This extra shot of gas is intended to compensate for
a momentary lean condition, which occurs when the throttle plate is suddenly opened, causing air velocity through the carb to drop too low to draw sufficient fuel from the main system. That momentary lean period can be problematic, so the accelerator pump serves to “take up the slack”. Knowing the above carburetor systems and their functions becomes more relevant as you understand their theory and adjustments, which follows.

Friday, November 27, 2009

Carbssss!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! VOL1...


Whatever the motorcycle or automobile, virtually all carburetors (or “carbs” for short and not to be confused with the “carbs” which can affect your waist-line) work on the same principles and use similar internal systems to deliver fuel in the proper air/fuel ratio to the engine. Depending on the manufacturer, the actual components within the carb(s) that use those principles do vary somewhat, but
their ultimate execution remains the same. They can be broken down into separate “circuits”. Like electrical circuits, they have defined paths of flow, cause and effect. The Road Star uses a Mikuni 40mm CV-type carburetor. “CV” stands for constant velocity and refers to the theoretically constant speed of the air that passes under the slide. But as you read further, you’ll see that the actual air speed does vary to some extent. At the outset, it must be mentioned that the OEM carb on the Road Star (and most emissions-legal street motorcycles, since 1978), being a CV-type carburetor, has a few significant design components that separate it from most pre-emissions era carbs and the so-called “race” or “high
performance” carbs which are still available today. Carburetors can use any combination of slide and/or throttle plate to control airflow into the engine. CV carbs have both, while most other designs use either a slide OR throttle plate. If they have manually controlled slides they’re typically called either “slide type” or “throttle slide” carbs. The designs that have no slide at all, but use only a throttle plate (or “butterfly”) to control airflow are typically called “butterfly” carburetors.

The OEM Mikuni 40mm Carburetor, as viewed from the intake side. Note: the needle has been removed in the carb above. If it were in place, it would protrude from the slide, down into the needle jet below the slide (and above the empty port at 6-O’clock). The throttle plate in a CV carburetor is a flat plate that pivots in the bore of the carb and, when nearly vertical, almost closes off the airflow into the intake tract, limiting intake flow to just what the engine needs to maintain a consistent idle. When it is opened all the way (directly inline with the carb’s
bore) it allows maximum airflow into the engine. In the case of the CV carb, the throttle plate is downstream of the slide, so maximum airflow requires that the throttle be fully opened and that the slide rises to its highest position as well. As a rule, those two requirements do occur at about the same time because you control the throttle plate with your right hand and the slide rises in response to the opening of the throttle butterfly. Non-CV carbs use either a rider-controlled slide as the throttle or they have no slide at all and use only a butterfly valve. Those carbs that have no slide at all are the simplest and oldest design of all carburetors and resemble the ones used on lawn mowers and other engines that don’t
require frequent changes in throttle control. Such designs are primitive, because they lack the precision control of fuel & air needed to pass emissions requirements or to give smooth well-controlled engine response, but they do work well in supplying massive amounts of air to engines made to make a lot of power (supercharged configurations being the best example).It bears mentioning that some of the old types of (mostly) pre-emissions carburetors have a choke plate near the mouth of the carb. It resembles the throttle plate of a CV carb, but it is upstream of any slide or throttle plate and it actually chokes off most of the air from entering the intake tract, hence the name “choke” which we still use to this day, even after the real chokes have been replaced with fuel enrichment systems.

Ken “the Mucker” Sexton
August, 2007
Specifically in application to the Yamaha Road Star)

Thursday, November 19, 2009

Let the engine we all do......Vol.2

Open Element Performance Air Filters

Normally, the air passing through the intake system is 21%
oxygen while nitrous oxide is 33%. We all know that nitrous
oxide is a power-boosting, complete and more expensive mod
in tuning process, and I hope we all agree on the performance
of this mod. Nitro increases the density of the oxygen in the air
to 33% from 21%, which is still quite close to the natural
density. Do you believe that a cotton performance filter can
increase the density of the oxygen? No.. So, the only fact about
the open element performance filters is that they only let some more air to pass
through, and the most important question is that how much horsepower do we get
from them?
Tests on dynamometers show that you will lose horsepower, not gain it if you don't
find a way to duct cool air directly to the cone filter. Unshielded cone filters (K&N or
any other) were reported to yield a net loss in horse power. The factory filter pulls cool air from outside the engine
compartment, while open cone filters will pull warm air from the area behind the radiator. Warm air is less dense than
cold, so this can cost between 6-13 HP. Cone filters like K&N and similars only raise the Hp's by 0-2 Hp's on a normally
aspirated engine, however, on turbocharged or supercharged engines, the increase is somewhat higher like 8-10 HP,
according to the power and vol. of the engine.
Another issue on performance air filters is that they only affect the top end, meaning close to redline. You can feel a
power loss at low revs. And one other is that the cotton filters let in considerably more dirt (300-500% more) than stock.
Filter allows more dust and fine dirt particles into the engine, but general consensus is that this should make no difference
to engine wear.

To get HP to increase, you need cold air... hot air will decrease HP. So find a way to isolate the filter. Use a special, large
entry box that will help suck the cold air from outside the engine compartment, or cut the hood.
Change your driving characteristics. Change gear at slightly higher revs, cause you will get power at high revs especially
closer to redline. (I'm sure you also do that in any case, at least for hearing the sound
Clean and re-oil your filter periodically. Even if you don't clean the filter, just re-oil it so you can be sure that the fine
particles or dust can't pass through the filtering element.
To get HP to increase, you need cold air... hot air will decrease HP. So find a way to isolate the filter. Use a special,
large entry box that will help suck the cold air from outside the engine compartment, or cut the hood.
Change your driving characteristics. Change gear at slightly higher revs, cause you will get power at high revs
especially closer to redline. (I'm sure you also do that in any case, at least for hearing the sound.
Clean and re-oil your filter periodically. Even if you don't clean the filter, just re-oil it so you can be sure that the
fine particles or dust can't pass through the filtering element.


Monday, November 16, 2009

Let the engine breath like we all do.....

Performance Air Filters
Performance air filters has always been a starting point for
those who want to take the first step into car tuning. This is
because performance air filters are easy to apply and are not so
expensive as other performance tuning components for your
I believe the first reason that make all of us purchase a
performance air filter for our cars is the sporty sound that we
all like, but generally there is a belief that performance filters will give you lots of
horse power, like a minimum of 5 hp, maybe more, even on a normally aspirated
Now, if I say that performance air filters generate nothing except a sport sound,
would you believe it? Your answer would normally be "No !"... Yes, performance air
filters do increase horse power but only under certain conditions.. Please continue reading the article..
Performance air filters - The Theory
The theory here is, as you let more air to the combustion chambers to mix with the fuel, you get more power, but the first
point is that under which conditions does the air flow and do performance air filters really provide more air as it has been
Aerodynamics, or let's call it air flow here, is so complicated so you can never be sure that the replacement of your
conventional air filter with an open element filter (like K&N, Kingdragon or Green) will provide more air flow to the intake
In-Box Applications
Let's discuss in-box applications like replacing the stock filter with a inbox K&N first, for those who want to apply that kind
of air filter mods. On a test which made with a test air box measuring the flow resistance of air yielded the following
(The number 100% states the maximum flow resistance to the air, meaning the air is somehow obstructed maximum by
the filter or the air box itself while passing through the combustion chambers. Numbers lower than 100 indicate that air
flows more easily relatively to the conditions represented with the number 100. It is natural that the air will flow most
easily if you detach the filter and the airbox, thus the lower number is 37.5 meaning the least resistance has exposed to
the air.
stock box w/ filter 100 %
stock box w/ K&N 100 %
stock box w/o filter 100 %
modified airbox (trimmed) w/filter 62.5%
modified w/K&N 56 %
individual filters 44 %
manifold only 37.5%
This test has shown that changing the stock filter with an inbox performance filter like K&N is useless unless you make
some mods to the airbox, but the most surprising result is that whether it's an original filter or a performance filter like
K&N, if you take one of these filters out and apply the test again with an empty air-box, there is still the same resistance
like there is a filter inside. That's really really hard to believe, but when you remember the test made with manifold only,
you see that air still has a resistance of 37.5. So, that's aerodynamics we talked before which is so hard to understand,
and it's not a big surprise that an airbox causes so much resistance.
It's clear that changing the stock filter with an in-box performance filter like K&N is useless unless you make some mods
to the airbox, and it's clear that it's not usual to drive without filter and the box, so instead of modifying the box, why
don't we use an open element cotton filter? We can get a result between 37.5 (the manifold only) and 56 (modified airbox
with K&N). Now, the most vital part of the article.. Please keep up reading..


Thursday, November 5, 2009

DIY Time

In the automobile segment, there is a huge need for proper education, which dealers never provide. By education, we mean the knowledge on proper maintenance and operational habits, care of the machine and so on, this is because of the fact that they are more oriented towards achieving a particular sales target and in the process forget about providing the new owner with useful information. Its actually rare to find someone who has been educated at the time of purchase about various aspects of the vehicle he is purchasing.

There was a time when 2 stroke engines ruled the roads and if you had a plan to buy a machine back then, the dealer would have said a lot about the machine even before you actually bought it, But they frequently missed out on informing the new buyer, after he has purchased the vehicle, about the grade of oil to be used in the engine. This reportedly caused a number or engine seizures as the owner simply did not have knowledge and caution on the type of oil to use.

All vehicles, be it big or small, need great care for extended service life and reliability, you would know that not everyone around is directly or indirectly related to the automobile arena so hence a lot of them would just simply follow the principle of ‘fill it, shut it, forget it’.
Each machine has a lot of moving parts and the reality is that most of them depend on each other for proper functioning, if one of them were to fail, then the resulting event would be like a chain reaction which would lead to failures of different kinds. There are spares which can and cannot be serviced and maintained by the average person, some of the spares which can be maintained also happen to be crucial components, they, can also be taken care of quite easily simply with a little spare time and a few basic tools at most.

So how can I maintain the bike myself, you might wonder? Well, here is a list of things which can you can take care of.

•Main chain and sprocket
•Battery pack
•Greasing of joints
•Adjustment of Brakes
•Adjustment of Control levers
•Adjustment of Hinges (if any).
The above is applicable for almost all kinds of two wheelers. So, come on let’s begin with the DIY…

Main Chain & Sprocket

This is a really important part of the bike, and as you might know, the bike won’t move at all if it’s in bad condition. During the monsoons, bike that have an open chain and sprocket against a covered one would need regular oiling, but at the same time, oiling for a closed chain and sprocket can be done just once in two weeks or something. The conventional way for lubricating chains was by using molten grease. This procedure was quite lengthy and used to take almost 12 hours to complete the job. But now you get special sprays for lubricating the chain system.

Along with the sprays, engineers would also advice on greasing the chain. But an open chain system requires either grease or spray due to the fact that grease or oil is a real magnet for dust and dirt; you might realize this when you look at a well greased chain after a week or so of riding. The usual interval for greasing the chain varies depending on the weather and the riding conditions. It’s usually recommended to grease it once in one or two weeks.

For people who can’t seem to find sprays, or prefer another way of doing it, follow the directions below. There are two methods that I’m explaining here:

1st method: Remove the chain from the machine; Dip it in clean diesel for at least 5-6 hrs. Then use the brush (plastic type bristles) for cleaning the mud out of it, and then re-wash it in clean diesel. If possible, hand it for about 2-3 hours to allow the diesel to drip out of the chain. This process would make the joints and the links on the chain free and smooth, the next step would be to dip the chain in EP90 oil or in 20W40 engine oil. There is no need to buy expensive or branded oils for it. You can buy oil which could be affordable, because the ultimate aim is to clean and lubricate the chain links in order to keep it from rusting, coming back to where we left off, after dipping it in the oil keep it that way for 4-5 hrs. And then allow it to hand in order for the oil to drip away, after you have done all of the above, simply install the chain back onto the machine.

2nd method: This is a more common method used for chain cleaning. Follow the same steps as above until the part where you allow the diesel to drip off from the chain, after that, take about half a kilogram of AP3 grease and heat it up so that it turns into a molten liquid. After its liquid enough, pour the same onto the chain and wait till the grease turns solid. After making sure that the grease is cold, remove the chain from the drive system and remove all the extra grease by wiping with the help of a soft cloth. This would make the chain ready to use again and so you can install it back on to the machine.


This happens to be an essential spare in a two wheeler. On our Indian roads, the horn and warning lights are an important element, these systems require the battery for functioning.

A battery is made up of lead, which is dipped in acid water. Acid water also means electrolyte, this means that the battery acid can actually damage the paint job and cause corrosion to other parts as well, so when you handle a battery, make sure you do so with care. Also, one common problem that batteries face is the oxidation or terminals. Each battery has a positive(+) and negative (-) terminal and overtime, the reactions in the battery cause these terminals to oxidize and that in turn reduces the voltage it can deliver.

So, how this can be avoided? Well in the market there are special sprays available for battery terminals. ‘Battery Coat’ is the best spray in my opinion and this can be sprayed on the terminals to remove or avoid oxidation. The spray avoids the terminals from direct contact to the air. If the spray is not readily, available then the best and the most conventional way to solve this problem is by using VASELINE petroleum jelly. By applying some amount of petroleum jelly the oxidation will not take place. The main drawback of this jelly is that it has a low melting point and during summer seasons, you might find that you need to do it a little often.

Greasing Points

Control levers, brake springs, brake pedals are some of the common points where its advisable to apply grease. Different climates also dictates the use of different types of lubrication. When it rains, it would be unadvisable to use oil for lubrication as it would get washed away easily. Grease would be the best for the monsoon. In summer as we know the temperature is high and its usually always dry. Generally air flows with dust particles. So in summer using oil is the best option for some of the spares. In rains, generally, the temperature becomes very low. At this time greasing would be the best option rather than oiling. Grease attracts dust very fast and could create resistance in moving parts.

Brake Adjustment

This process is very simple and can save you a lot more than money. Every vehicle would have its own basic tool kit. Generally all motorcycles, scooters have 13mm nut size for adjusting the rear brakes. A suitable tool for this bolt would be in the tool kit. There needs to be a little caution applied when tightening the brakes as a tight setting can jam the brakes and cause a lot of problems like engine and brake overheating and also low mileage, at the same time a loose brake setting can slow your reaction time down. So adjust it as required.


One of my friends used to wash his Bullet for at least 6-7 hours. Well yes 6-7 hours, wondering why? Passion. He used to wash with brush, diesel, cleaning soap etc.

Many washing centers simply use a soap mixture and a dirty towel (which can really scratch your paint job). They would just do it for the money. You, on the other hand, know your vehicle well and so it would be easy for you to clean it, here are a few tips that can help you. Oil stains can be removed easily by using solvents like diesel or kerosene. First spray some water on the machine and then use diesel or kerosene. Then spray water for cleaning it. If you own a new machine, you can keep its paint looking like that everytime by following some simple steps. Use a soft, clean towel and try to wash the mud (on the painted parts) out rather than scrape it off. Also, as much as possible, use a Ph neutral shampoo. Look on the label before purchasing it. After washing don’t forget to oil or grease the joints or parts as told above. Avoid greasing or oil before wash as it may become useless.

Control Levers

These levers are made up of some kind of alloys. But since it is a moving part that a rider would use frequently, make sure you grease the joints well.


These are usually found on Royal Enfield Bullets and Honda scooters. These hinges always require oil and rust cleaner spray to keep rust away and they can break loose if not well maintained.

I have explained how you can easily maintain your bike rather than spend money by sending it to the workshop. No dealer would keep reminding the rider to service the bike all the time. These are factors which the riders would need to keep track of in order for the machine to be in service flawlessly for a long time and always remember, respect the machine, the machine respects you.

- Chinmay Dangre
old write up of mine which was published on

Sunday, November 1, 2009

My Trust, K&N Filters!!!!!!!!!!!

The name K&N Filters has long been standing for one of the best air filters for automobiles known to man. It’s made of high quality; it improves performance while at the same time increases engine efficiency. How does it work? Read on as we find out.

How It Works:

Factory fitted air-filters are designed in a way that filters maximum possible dirt particles from the air before in enters the engine, the main drawback here is the factory fitted air filters restrict air flow to the engine because of its high filtration capacity and thickness. Here is where the K&N fills the gap, it provides the ideal balance of filtration and air flow, and the end result being better engine performance and efficiency, one might wonder if this increase in air flow would sacrifice air filtration. It doesn’t. The secret of the K&N filter is in its material, if you have seen one, you would know that it’s made of something different.
We managed to contact Cynthia Wert, who is the International Account Manager for K&N Engineering Inc; this is what she had to say on the filtration capabilities of the K&N air filter.
“The filter is meant to separate dirt and dust particles, and not air molecules, which get suspended in the air, range in size from 5-120 microns (some larger, some smaller), which would cause premature wear, damage, or catastrophic failure to an internal combustion engine, if ingested. The largest of the molecules we are discussing are Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Water (H2O). A CO2 molecule has an average width of 3.42 Angstrom, and an H2O molecule has an average width of 2.11 Angstrom. A CO2 particle measuring 3.42 Angstrom across is equivalent to 0.000342 microns, and an H2O particle would be 0.000211 microns. For comparison, ISO Test Dust, which we use to test our air filters, is made up of a distribution of different size particles, of which the smallest are 1-5 microns. Nitrogen molecules in the atmosphere are diatomic (N2) and have an average width of 2.20 Angstrom, or 0.000220 microns.”
In short K&N filters would do a better job in filtration that the factory fitted one, eliminating the drawbacks of the same. If you’re planning to purchase a K&N, be sure to go with an authentic one, here is how you verify the authenticity as mentioned by George Hsieh from the K&N Tech Support: Every K&N air filter has 1 or 2, 6 digit mould number on the rubber base or top of the air filter. This will tell you whether the filter is authentic.
Owning a K&N; Care and Maintenance: Cleaning a K&N is very simple. For cleaning there are no kilometer intervals. But in general, the company recommends cleaning the filters every 40,000 kms, cleaning is also advised based on visual inspection. Every K&N has a cotton mesh as well as wire mesh. As per company recommendation, if the wire mesh is not visible then is the time for cleaning. The company also provides special cleaning kit which includes a cleaning solution (solvent) and oil. Any other oil is not recommended for K&N and the same goes for cleaning liquids or agents.

Here is the procedure of cleaning the filter.

•Step 1. Remove the filter from carburetor or air box.
•Step 2. Spray the given solution on filter surface from inner side and outer side.
•Step 3. Keep the filter untouched till maximum 10 minutes.
•Step 4. Wash the filter in plain water without pressure. (Small quantity of Liquid Soap is permissible for washing, then apply plain regular water to clean and remove the soapy water)
•Step 5. If there is any dirt remaining on the filter body then repeat the step 2.
•Step 6. After washing the filter in the water keep the filter for drying. Natural drying is advisable for K&N filters to avoid the damages. (Do not use compressed air, that will damage the cotton mesh)
•Step 7. Before applying oil, make sure the filter is completely dry. After drying the filter, apply the given K&N oil on outer surface. Do not use the oil from inner side.
•Step 8. Refit the filter.

Ready to use. Enjoy the Performance.

- Chinmay Dangre

Tuesday, October 20, 2009

BaBy Ninja Performance Spare Part List

Performance Material List:-

NGK IR Plug:- CR8EIX 550Rs. each.

Canisters :-

Yoshimura Full Exhaust.
$719.00 TRC Stainless/Carbon Full System
$699.00 TRC Stainless/Titanium Full System
$599.00 TRC Stainless/Stainless Full System

Yoshimura TRC Slip-On Exhaust.
$549.00 TRC Stainless/Carbon Slip-On
$499.00 TRC Stainless/Titanium Slip-On
$429.00 TRC Stainless/Stainless Slip-On


TwoBros V.A.L.E.™ Slip-on Exhaust Systems - M-2 Aluminum canister
Part Number: 005-2080406V MSRP: $399.98

V.A.L.E.™ Slip-on Exhaust Systems - M-2 Carbon Fiber canister
Part Number: 005-2080407V MSRP: $499.98
V.A.L.E.™ Slip-on Exhaust Systems - M-2 Titanium canister
Part Number: 005-2080408V MSRP: $499.98



Jardine RT5 Slip On Part Number: 19-3018-123-02 Price: ~$300 [USD]


Area P Canister
US$495.00 Standard Carbon Fiber US$450.00 Standard Stainless Steel

K&N for Baby

Part number KA-2586
Product Style: Dual Flange Oval Tapered Universal Air Filter

Tyres :-

Pirelli Dragon Supercorsa Tires
110/70:- Front
150/60:- Rear

Commander :- (Yet to confirm all the details but still)

Power Commander V:- part number17-001 $359.95
Related Accessories AutoTune Part number AT-200 $249.00

Manufacture: Airtech Streamlining Parts Numbers and Pricing are as follows:


Tuesday, October 13, 2009

Experiments on Free Flow Exhaust.

I am working on this free flow exhaust system from long time. This is my new invention. The canister is suitable for 150 to 200cc machines.
the system is equipped with controller which is basically manual valve. Which can be set for high RPM. The canister is not calculated as per required CFM. Neither it is calculated for proper back pressure or flow velocity. So to achieve that I have made the valve to control the back pressure. The system worked very fine and perfect with great awesome sound but only on 10 to 200cc machines. When I did test on 220cc machine it was worst...The control or the valve need only one time setting. Can be set only when motorcycle is on test bench. The setting is depending on high rev. Once I get high rev the valve is permanently set on particular position.

High Performance Mods

As we know Indian market is fast growing market in two wheeler segment due to large amount of interest in biking. But lack of imported bikes people are interested in change in their present motorcycles. Generally people tends to change the machine from stock to high performance for either street racing, circuit racing, drag racing or for dirt purpose. Earlier some of the high performance material was not available in India due to lack of knowledge about material or because of importing it to India.

Nowadays in India there are some high performance spares available by some of the direct distributor or importers, for example K&N filters, Piper Cross, MSD Ignitions, NGK, DYNOJET, Microns, and TwoBrothers etc. The material is extremely high performance but just by putting few spares you can’t increase the performance due to lack of information. The performance is depending on channels or the way you put those spares in-line. In simple language it’s a kind of computer flow chart.

In the market some people just trying to do business for money. Anyways let’s talk about the high performance for Indian motorcycle. Let’s start from Filter, in the market you get K&N or PiperCross, LM filters or BMC filters or whatever. When rider or mechanic installs those High Free Flow Filters they generally forget or don’t change some or the other things just to avoid complications.

High Free Flow Filters means Air without any obstruction or rather than increase in Air quantity. Stock Motorcycle comes with some particular ratio of Air and Fuel. For example if the stock has got 5:1 ratio that means 5% is air and 1% is fuel. Now consider Air with Free flow filter is 10%, people always forget to increase the fuel ratio, which means fuel should be 2%. So when you are putting High Free Flow filters don’t forget to increase the ratio of Fuel by Re-Jetting.

High or low number jets are available in the market or you can get it from some local manufacturer with accurate required numbers. Dellorto/Spaco has got jets but not suitable for Mikuni or Keihin because of thread size. In Two wheeler all Indian bikes are coming with Mikuni or Keihin carbs. So make sure about thread sizes. So after Re-Jetting next step is burning all the fuel, which means change in spark plug (NGK-Ir), change in spark plug cable (MSD Ignition Cables), High performance Ignition coil for better and high voltage for burning the fuel.

Next step after plug and its cable the main and priority change in Exhaust canister, which people always forget or ignore or avoid using High Performance Free Flow exhaust canister. The reason behind free flow high performance canister is, when the intake is increased by some amount the exhaust should also go in that ratio which stock silencers can’t do. For that reason its priority to change the canister from stock to high performance (TwoBrothers, Microns, etc). In all mods the channel of modifications should be in route for good performance. So this is the main flow chart for modifications in Indian Motorcycles without tinkering much and very much easy because of external changes. For ECU controlled or EFI system and Carburetor motorcycles some of the modifications are common, But EFI needs some different modification due to its ECU, which we need to remap for high performance.

Don’t forget to work on Lubrication for better performance. In the market you might get some high performance lubes like synthetic, semi synthetic oils. Oil is the main factor in the engine for performance, wrong oil grade can decrease the performance rapidly and might damage the motor or moving parts.

Please note: Some of the imported oils are not suitable for Indian Motorcycles, they are very good for Higher CC engines. The major lag of power starts from clutch, so wrong oil can start slippage in clutch. So make sure before you buy and pour in the motor. Now lets move on to internal changes which I call COREPOWER.

The first change should be clutch springs, the main engine power transmission is through clutch so bad clutch springs or low tension springs kills the BHP, so use proper tension or some high tension clutch springs which should high tension than stock springs. The second step is nitriding of intake and exhaust valves and so the cam, which will reduce the wear and tear. Somehow if you are able to get titanium connecting rod, Valves then nothing like it, but sadly for Indian motorcycle it is still not available.

Anyway, so the next step in internal change which is Big Bore Cylinder. Change to higher size piston for big bore cylinder. After that next change should be Hard Chrome Plating on cylinder bore, which helps the piston for fast motion. The next step is increase in intake bore for better intake. After those changes you will definitely get high performance from your Indian Motorcycle.

Ride Safely And Enjoy Life

Chinmay Dangre
You can login to for my all other old articles.

Sunday, October 11, 2009

“Exploring The Unknown”

Extensive list of Motorcycle Manufactures from around the world.

List of companies currently producing and selling motorcycles available to the public, including both street and race/off-road motorcycles. Does not include badge engineered bikes sold under a different name than their producer, nor motorcycle customizes. Some of the motorcycles or the manufacturers stopped manufacturing their respective products. When I found this list I was zapped and was feeling guilty about having less knowledge about the motorcycles. Having knowledge about vehicles is a different thing but at least knowing about the products is must. In fact I found some of the products which are made in India were also unknown to me.

Cerro Motos, Da Dalt, Guerrero (motorcycle), Motomel, Zanella

Husaberg, KTM, Generic, Belarus, Minsk, Brazil, Agrale, MVK, Kasins ki, Canada, Bombardier, Can-Am.

Chang Jiang Motorworks, Chunlan Motorcycle, Fushida-Battle, Geely Motorcycles, Haojue, Hi Bird, Hongyi Motors, Jialing, Jincheng Suzuki, Kaitong (distributed as Yiben), Kinroad Xintian Motorcycle Manufacture Co. Ltd, Lifan, Linhai, Lu Hao, Nanfang Motor, Qianjiang (distributed as Keeway), Qinqi, Taizhou Shake Ring Motorcycle, Shandong (distributed as Pioneer in the US), Shanghai- Ek Chor Motorcycle Xingfu, Shineray, Superbyke, Tank Guangzhou (distributed as Tank in the US, KTMMEX mfg group), Tuohe, Wuyang Honda, Zongshen.

Czech Republic
CZ, Jawa, Blata

Gima, Peugeot, Scorpa, Sherco, Solex, Voxan, Wakan, CEMEC , Dresch, Gnome et Rhône, Motobécane, Peugeot, Ratier, Terrot.

BMW, MZ, Sachs, Adler, Ardie, BMW, DKW, D-Rad, EMW, Express, Hecker, Hercules, Hoffmann, Horex, Kreidler, Mars, Maico, Megola, MZ, Neander, NSU, Opel, Sachs, Simson, Tornax, Triumph (TWN), Victoria, Wanderer, Zündapp.

Bajaj Auto, Hero Honda, Hero Motors, TVS Motors, LML, Kinetic Motor Company, Royal Enfield, Kanda, Monto, Global Automobiles, Ideal Jawa India,

Happy Motorcycle, Kymco, Kanzen,

Aprilia, Benelli, Beta Motor, Bimota, Borile, Cagiva, Ducati, Fantic Motor, Ghezzi & Brian, Gilera (owned by Piaggio along with Vespa), Laverda, Malaguti, Moto Guzzi, Moto Morini, MV Agusta, Piaggio, Terra Modena, TM Racing (1976), Vertemati, VOR, Husqvarna(owned by BMW but all production remains in Italy- formerly Sweden), Aprilia, Benelli, Beta, Bimota, Cagiva, Ducati, Garelli, Gilera, Italjet, Lambretta, Laverda, Malaguti, Minarelli, Mondial, Morbidelli, Motobi, Moto Guzzi, Moto Morini, MV Agusta, Piaggio, Vespa.

Honda, Kawasaki, Suzuki, Yamaha, Asahi, Bridgestone, Cabton, Daihatsu, Fuji, Giant, Hirano, Hodaka, Hosk, Hyogo, Iwasaki, Kurogane, Kyoho, Lilac, Marusho, Mazda, Meguro, Mitsubishi, Miyata, Mizushima, NS, New Era, Nisshin, Rikuo, Showa Fujiya, Tohatsu, Yamaguchi.

South Korea
Daelim, Hyosung

Modenas, Petronas (as Foggy Petronas Racing).

Carabela, Dinamo, Zanetti, Toromex-Hyosung.

Atlas Honda company, Dawood Yamaha, Excel, Geo, Ghani, Habib Limited, Hero zero, Laser traze, Master grass, Metro trian, New khan, Pakistan, Ravi campus, Road Prince, Stahlco, Starlite, Super Asia, Suzuki Pakistan Motorcycles, TIGER By MOHSIN
TRADERS, Target, Super Star, Toyo, Unique.



Balt Motors, IZH, Kovrov, ZiD, IMZ-Ural.


Bultaco, Derbi, Gas Gas, Lube, Montesa, MotoTrans, Rieju, Sherco.

Access Motor (Access Motor Co., Ltd Taiwan), CPI, Media, Hartford, Kymco, SYM, PGO, brand of Motive Power Industry, Taiwan Golden Bee (TGB)

United Kingdom
AJS, CCM, Moto-roma, Triumph, ABC (1919–1923), Abingdon (AKD 1903-1925), Advance(905-1947), AER(1937-1940), Ambassador(1946-1964), AJW (1928-1976), Ascot-Pullin(1928-1930), AMC(1937-1966), Ariel(1902-1970), Armstrong(1980-1987), Baker(1927-1930), Bat(1902-1926), Baughan(1920-1936), Beardmore Precision(1914-1930), Blackburne(1913-1922), Bradbury (1902-1924), Brough(1908-1926), Brough Superior(1919-1940), BSA(1919-1972), Calthorpe(1909-1939), Chater-Lea(1900 -1936), Clyno(1909-1923), Corgi (1946-1954), Cotton(1918-1980), Coventry-Eagle(1901-1939), Coventry-Victor (1919-1936), DMW(1945-1971), DOT(1908-1978), Douglas(1907-1957), Dunelt (1919-1935), Duzmo(1919-1923), EMC(1947), Excelsior(1896-1964), Francis-Barnett(1919-1966), Greeves(1953-1976), Haden(1912-1924), Hesketh(1981-1988), Humber(1898-1930), HRD(1922-1928), Ivy(1911-1934), James(1902-1966), JAP(1903-1939), Levis(1911-1939), Martinsyde(1919-1923), Matchless (1899-1966), Montgomery(1902-1939), Ner-a-Car(1921-1926), New Hudson (1903-1958), New Imperial(1901-1939), Norman(1935-1963), Norton(1898-1992), Norton-Villiers(1966-1972), Norton Villiers Triumph(1972-1978), NUT(1912-1933), OEC(1901-1954), OK-Supreme(1882-1940), P&P(1922-1930), Premier(1908-1921), Panther(1904-1967), Quasar(1975-1982), Quadrant(1901-1928), Raleigh(1899-1967), Rex-Acme(1899-1933), Rickman(1960-1975), Rover (1902-1924), Royal Enfield(1893-1971), Rudge(1911-1946), Scott(1908-1965), Silk(1976-1979), Singer(1900-1915), Sprite(1964-1974), Sun(1911-1961), Triumph (1885-1983), Sunbeam(1912-1964), Velocette(1904-1968), Villiers, Vincent-HRD(1928-1959), Wilkinson(1911-1916), Wooler(1909-1954), Zenith(1905–1950).

United States
Alligator, American Eagle, American IronHorse, American Performance Cycle (APC), ATK motorcycles, Bourget Bike Works, Big Bear Choppers, Big Dog, Boss Hoss, Buell Motorcycle Company (Now a Harley-Davidson subsidiary), Chopper City USA CHPP, Confederate Motorcycles, Covingtons Cycle City, Desperado, Falcon, Fischer, GPX Engines, Harley-Davidson, Hellbound Steel Motorcycles, Indian, Ironworks, KPX Motors, MTT, Merkel, MotoCzysz, Motovert, Orange County Choppers (OCC), Oyler Custom Cycles, Pantera, Pitster Pro, PCW, Red Horse, Rhino Motorcycles, Roehr Motorcycles, Rokon, Ridley, Rucker, Saxon, Steed, Studebaker Motor Company, The Modern Day company, Swift, Titan, United Motors, Von Dutch Kustom Cycles, Vengeance, Vento Motorcycles U.S.A., Victory, Viper, West Coast Choppers, Whizzer, Wicked Women Choppers, Wild West Motor Company, Xtreme Choppers, ZAP, Ace, Bi-Autogo, California, Crocker, Excelsior-Henderson, Cyclone, Henderson, Hodaka, Iver Johnson, MotoCzysz, Mustang, Penton, Pierce-Arrow, Yankee,

Cibana, Belde, Vince-Rocket, Winner, Ondina.

Motorcycle manufacturers no longer in production
List of companies that once produced and sold motorcycles available to the public, including both street and race/off-road motorcycles. Also includes some former motorcycle producers of noted historical significance but who would today be classified as badge engineered or customizers. Includes both companies that are defunct, and those that still exist but no longer make motorcycles, and some that were acquired by other companies.


Austro-ILO(1923-1967), Delta-Gnom(1923-1963), Laurin & Klement(1899-1908), Puch(1903-1987).

FN, Gillet Herstal, Minerva(1900-1914), Mondiale(1923-1934), Saroléa(1901-1960).

Amazonas(1978-1986), Kahena 1992.


Czech Republic
Čechie (Böhmerland), CZ, ESO, Jawa CZ, Premier(1913-1933)


Helkama, Tunturi

Alcyon (1904-1957), Automoto, Barigo, BFG, Dresch(1923-1939), Elf, Excelsior (Bourgoin)- (1910-1912), Gitane, Gnome et Rhône(1919-1959), Koehler-Escoffier, Magnat-Debon, MF, MGC(1927-1932), Midual, Monet-Goyon, Motobécane, Nougier, Radior, Ratier(1959-1962), Werner-1901, Terrot.

Ardie (1919-1957), DKW 1919, D-Rad(1923-1933), Excelsior(Brandenburg)(1901-1906 / 1927-1939), Excelsior (München-1923-1924), Express(1933-1958), Flottweg-1921, Hecker(1922-1957), Hercules(1904-1966), Horex(1923-1960), Hoffmann(1949-1954), Killinger and Freund Motorcycle, Kreidler(1951-1982), Maico, Mars(1903-1958), Megola(1921-1925), Münch(1966-1980), MuZ, Neander(1924-1932), NSU, Opel(1901-1930), Triumph (Nürnberg-1903-1957), Victoria(1899-1966), Wanderer(1902-1929), Zündapp.

East Germany
AWO(1950-1957), EMW(1945-1956), IFA, MZ, Simson

Alta(1962-1972), Lefas(1982-2005), Maratos(1920s), MEBEA(1960-1975), Mego (1962-1992).

Csepel(1951-1975), Pannónia(1951-1975), Danuvia(1955-1967).

Aermacchi(1945-1979), Aeromere/Capriolo(1948-1964), Bianchi(1897-1967), Caproni(1953-1959), Ceccato, motorcycles(1949—1960's), CM (1930-1957), Della Ferrera(1909-1938), FB Mondial, Frera(1906-1936), Garelli, Iso, Lamborghini (Only 5 or 6 Lamborghini-badged concept bikes made by a French contractor in 1986.), Laverda(1948), Miller-Balsamo(1921-1959), Morbidelli, Moretti(1934-1952), Ollearo(1921-1953), Parilla(1946-1967), Sertum(1932-1951), SWM, Taurus(1933-1966), Tecnomoto.

Bridgestone, Cabton, Fuji, Hodaka, Hosk, Marusho(1948-1967), Meguro, Mitsubishi(1946-1963), Miyata, Rikuo, Tohatsu.

Carabela, Cooper, Islo.


New Zealand
Britten Motorcycles.


Shahsawar Motorcycle

CWS, SFM, Sokół, WFM.

Casal, Casal, Celestino, Confersil, EFS, Famel, Fundador, Macal(1921-2004), Nacional, Pachancho, SIS, Vilar, Vouga.

Russian Empire
Alexander Leutner & Co.(1899–1918?)

Bultaco(1958-1979), Lube, Moto Hispania, Mototrans, Montesa(1945-1981), Ossa, Sanglas(1942-1981)

Husqvarna, Monark

Condor, Motosacoche


United Kingdom
AJW(1928-1977), Ambassador(1946-1964), AMC(1938-1966), Ariel(1902-1970), Armstrong(1980-1987), Beardmore Precision(1921-1924), Blackburne(1913-1921), Brough(1908-1926), Brough Superior(1919-1940), BSA(1905-1973), Calthorpe, Clarendon, Clyno(1908-1923), Cotton, Coventry-Eagle, DOT, Douglas , EMC(1946-1977), Excelsior(Coventry-1896-1965), Greeves, Haden, Hesketh (1982-1984), Francis-Barnett(1919-1966), HRD, Ivy(1907-1934), James, JAP, Levis(1911-1939), Martinsyde(1908-1923), Matchless(1899), Ner-a Car(1921-1927, New Hudson, New Imperial(1901-1939), Norman, Norton(reformed in 2008) — (1902- ), OK-Supreme(1882-1940), OEC(1901-1954), Palmelli, Panther, Quadrant(1901-1928), Quasar(1977-1985), Raleigh(1899-1967), Redrup Radial(1919-1922), Rickman(1960-1975), Royal Enfield production continues in India, Rudge-Whitworth, Scott, Singer, Sprite, Spryt, Stevens(1934-1938), Sun(1911-1961), Sunbeam, Triumph Engineering Ltd (reformed in the 1980s and now still made-1902), Velocette(1904-1968), Villiers, Vincent HRD(1928- ), Vincent, Wooler(1911-1954), Zenith (1905-1949).

United States
Ace(1920-1927), American Ironhorse, Arrow(1909-1914), California Motorcycle Company, Cleveland(1902-, 1927), Crocker(1936-1941), Curtiss(1902-1910), Cushman(1936-1965), Emblem(1909-1925), Excelsior(Chicago-1907-1931), Excelsior-Henderson(1993 /1998-2001), Harley-Davidson(1903-present), Henderson(1911-1931), Indian-1907, Iver Johnson(1907-1916), Marsh(1899-1913), Militaire(1911-1919), Mustang(1945-1963), Ner-a Car(1921-1927), Merkel(1902-1915), Pierce(1909-1913), Pope(1911-1918), Reading Standard(1903-1922), Rokon, Sears(1912-1916/1953-1963), Simplex (Louisiana) (1935-1960), Schickel(1912-1919), Thor(1907-1917), Yale (motorcycles), Yankee, Victory(1998-present)

Soviet Union
Cossack, GMZ(1941-1949), KMZ(1945-1990), MMZ(1941, 1946-1951), NATI(1931-1933), PMZ(1935-1939), TIZ(1936-1941), TMZ(1941-1943), \


Saturday, October 10, 2009

Kawasaki Ninja 250R Specification

General Specifications

Overall Length 2085 mm (82.1 in.)
Overall Width 715 mm (28.1 in.)
Overall Height 1110 mm (43.7 in.)
Wheelbase 1400 mm (55.1 in.)
Road Clearance 130 mm (5.1 in.)
Seat Height 775 mm (30.5 in.)
Dry Mass 152 kg, (335 lb)

Curb Mass:
Front 82 kg (181 lb)
Rear 87 kg (192 lb)
Fuel Tank Capacity 18.0 L (4.8 US gal)

Minimum Turning Radius 2.7 m (8.9 ft)

Type 4-stroke, DOHC, 2-cylinder
Cooling System Liquid-cooled
Bore And Stroke 62.0× 41.2 mm (2.5 × 1.6 in.)
Displacement 249 cm³ (15.2 cu in.)
Compression Ratio 11.6
Maximum Horsepower 23.4 kW (31.8 PS) @11 000 r/min (rpm),
Maximum Torque 22.0 N•m (2.24 kg•m, 16.2 ft•lb) @9 500 r/min (rpm),
Carburetion System Carburetor, Keihin CVK 30× 2(AU), (IN-FI)
Starting System Electric starter
Ignition System Battery and coil (transistorized)
Timing Advance Electronically advanced
Ignition Timing From 10° BTDC @1 300 r/min (rpm)
35° BTDC @4 000 r/min (rpm)
Spark Plug NGK CR8E or ND U24ESR-N
Cylinder Numbering Method Left to Right, 1-2
Firing Order 1-2

Valve Timing:
Lubrication System Forced Lubrication (wet sump)

Engine Oil:
Grade API SE, SF or SG
Viscosity SAE10W-40
Capacity 1.7 L (1.80 US qt)

Drive Train:
Primary Reduction System:

Type Gear:
Reduction ratio 3.087 (71/23)
Clutch Type Wet multi disc

Type 6-speed, constant mesh, return shift

Gear Ratios:
1st 2.600 (39/15)
2nd 1.789 (34/19)
3rd 1.409 (31/22)
4th 1.160 (29/25)
5th 1.000 (27/27)
6th 0.893 (25/28)

Final Drive System:
Type Chain drive
Reduction Ratio 3.214 (45/14) (AU) 3.071 (43/14)
Overall Drive Ratio 8.859 @Top gear (AU) 8.466 @Top gear

Type Tubular, diamond
Caster (Rake Angle) 26°
Trail 82 mm (3.2 in.)

Front Wheel:
Tire Type Tubeless
Tire Size 100/70-17M/C 54H
Rim Size 17 × 2.75

Rear Wheel:
Tire Type Tubeless
Tire Size 130/70-17M/C 62H
Rim Size 17 × 3.50

Front suspension:
Type Telescopic fork
Wheel Travel 120 mm (4.7 in.)

Rear Suspension:
Type Swingarm (uni-trak)
Wheel Travel 130 mm (5.1 in.)

Brake Type:
Front Single disc
Rear Single disc
Electrical Equipment
Battery 12V / 6Ah

Type Semi-sealed beam

High 12V / 55W + 55W (quartz-halogen)
Low 12V / 55W (quartz-halogen)
Tail/brake Light 12V / 5/21W

Alternator:Type Three-phase AC
Rated Output 19A @5 000 r/min (rpm), 14V

*Specifications are subject to change without notice, and may not apply to every country. (This is AU model, the given specification is not for Indian Model.)
*All the details may vary from actual specifications.

Tuesday, October 6, 2009

Performance Mod

The methods to increase H.P. in flatheads has been developed over the years, these are tried and true methods that we still use today, these methods have names that the average lay person would probably not know, below is a glossary of these methods.
PORTING, this is the grinding away of lumps, bumps and excess materiel left in the intake and exhaust ports when the engine is cast and the valve seats machined.

POLISHING, when porting a rough grinder is used, after porting the inside of the intake and exhaust ports are polished, the intake is cleaned up and smoothed but not shined, the exhaust port is cleaned up and polished to a shine.
RELIEVING, this is when material is removed from the top of the block between the intake and exhaust ports and the piston bore, serious relieving is to mill material out of the block for better flow of the gasses, mild relieving is when material is removed from the chamfers around the valves for better flow of the fuel.

HI LIFT CAM, when a cam is reground the cam grinder will take material off the bottom of the cam heel, this causes the valve to be opened higher, the profile is also changed so the valve will remain open longer, both of these changes helps put more air/fuel mixture into the engine.
STROKING, Stroking is a method of increasing the compression of an engine. Stroking is accomplished by regrinding the crankshaft at an offset, this causes the piston to come up higher in the cylinder bore thereby increasing the compression.

OVERSIZE INTAKE VALVES, the intake valve in a Champion is approximately 1 1/4 inch in diameter, I have found a valve that is 1 1/2 inch in diameter and will increase the intake flow greatly, they are of stainless steel.
DUAL CARBURETOR INTAKE MANIFOLD, these manifolds are aluminum manifolds made to hold 2 carburetors instead of 1 for better fuel distribution and increased H.P.

DUAL EXHAUST HEADERS, this is the manufacture of 2 separate exhaust headers, each header carries the exhaust gasses from 3 ports, I manufacture these headers from parts of the exhaust manifolds, at present there are no cast headers available.
IGNITION SYSTEMS, up until now there hasn't been much that you could do for a 6 volt ignition distributor, however I have just developed an electronic breakerless ignition system to fit the Autolite distributor on Champions, it is available in 6 volt positive ground and 12 volt negative ground, this will make a great improvement in the performance and dependability of the Champion engine.

Saturday, September 26, 2009

Saturday, September 19, 2009

Monday, September 14, 2009

AVL Diesel CRDI Engine For Motorcycles.

AVL, or Anstalt für Verbrennungskraftmaschinen List, may not be a name well known to people in general and so are the engines and automotive machinery that they manufacture. It is an Austrian-based automotive consulting firm as well as an independent research institute. It is also the largest privately owned company for the development of power train systems with internal combustion engines (ICEs) as well as instrumentation and test systems AVL are well known throughout the automotive world for their engineering prowess when it comes to engine design and manufacture. Chances are, you most probably have witnessed an AVL engine in action during recent times, prime examples being the engines of Mahindra Scorpio/Xylo, and more importantly, the Enfield Bullet. These were designed by AVL and as you may know they are examples or reliable, efficient and powerful engines.

Here, we talk about a new kind of engine, one that has the potential to revolutionize the biking world. Yamaha has already applied a patent for it and AVL has almost completed the design and engineering phases of the same. Its the diesel turbocharged engine for bikes! The simple reason it’s going to be different is because of the fact that its a diesel engine. Yes you heard it diesel. You might be wondering what is so great about this because you already may have seen Enfield’s on the road fitted with diesel power plants. But there is a whole world of difference between an old age diesel engine and a new generation one.
You see, like all things, engines have gotten better and better over time and its actually rare for one to see a new bike or car with engine problems of any sort, anyone would know how silly the noises are from an old diesel engine but the fact of the matter is Yamaha and AVL are in no mood for old stuff, they’re focusing on turbocharged, lightweight, fuel injected or common rail systems for their diesel engines. The diesel engine on a Suzuki Swift is among the most technically advanced diesel engines in mass production, its silence, refinement, power, efficiency and size stands testimony to the fact that diesel engines can actually be as good as their petrol counterparts. Gone are the days when you needed twice the Cubic Capacity of a petrol engine to produce the same power from a diesel, with modern technologies like turbo systems, more power can be made from a lot smaller package.

Let’s move on to the details. We are focussing on the AVL engine as its the only one we have more information on while the Yamaha’s version is right now kept confidential. AVL has designed a 3 cylinder, turbo charged, common rail fuel injected diesel engine. These kinds of engines are widely used in the Indian automobile market because of their efficiency and the lost cost of diesel fuel. Also such engines generally have power in the low to mid range of RPM’s which make it much easier to drive than its petrol counterpart. Using this sort of engine on a bike would make perfect sense because of all the factors mentioned above. But there are certain problems like turbo lag and diesel smoke that make it a slightly worrying prospect; the folks at AVL managed to get past these hurdles with the use of a VGT (Variable Geometry Turbine) that adjusts the turbo blade angles to provide power in a smooth and steady manner, examples of this technology can be found in the Porsche 911 Turbo and the Hyundai Verna.

The AVL diesel engine and vehicle concept was performed as an internal research and development project. It is the first high performance diesel engine to be specially designed for motorcycles in terms of packaging and styling. The packaging of the engine in the vehicle was shown using a rapid prototype model. The engine design is based on AVL know-how from development results and measurement data of state of the art HSDI (High Speed Direct Injection) diesel engines, Also besides the packaging and design work, a 1D thermodynamic engine simulation system with AVL’s software code ‘BOOST’ was carried out in order to optimise the gas exchange of the engine including the VGT (Variable Geometry Turbine) turbocharger to predict the engine performance. To optimise the engine in terms of cyclic speed irregularity a torsion vibration system was set up using AVL’s software code ‘BRICKS’. This simulation included the variation of the flywheel mass and the analysis of different cylinder pressure and associated characteristics. Additional simulations of the entire motorcycle in order to determine the driving performance were carried out using AVL’s Vehicle simulation software ‘CRUISE’. The engine specifications were fixed under consideration of the required performance, emission, styling and noise targets. The table below gives an overview of the main engine specifications for the engine.

The crankshaft of the diesel engine was designed in order to achieve the required torsional rigidity with a minimum weight. Overall this is a promising development in engine technology and is one that will surely change the world of biking for some time to come. Yamaha has already filed for a patent for an engine with almost the same characteristics and its just a matter of time to see who comes out with the finished version first.

Saturday, September 5, 2009

Auto Tech

Tuning the Carburetor
Part 2

Tuning your Harley Davidson carburetor is simpler than most think and can be performed with a few common tools. This simple procedure is a great Harley tech tip that applies to all Harley carbs from 1989 to present that use the CV style Harley Davidson carburetor. Earlier models equipped with the older butterfly style carbs (pre-89 Evo's, Shovelheads, Pans, and Ironheads) are excellent candidates for upgrading to a modern Harley carburetor. Preparing the carburetor for tuning will require removal from your Harley-Davidson's engine but this is easily accomplished. Begin by shutting off the petcock fuel valve and starting the engine to allow all fuel within the carburetor bowl to be emptied. Remove the aircleaner assembly including the backing plate which is attached to each head with a banjo bolt. This is a good time to inspect these bolts for obstructions in their passages. Remove the choke cable from it's mounting bracket on the opposite side of the bike.

Note: Before proceeding to rejet your carburetor it is recommended that you perform the following tuning procedure. Once the the mixture has been properly tuned there is often no need to rejet the carb.

The choke cable will stay attached to the carburetor during this procedure. Disconnect the fuel line from the fuel inlet on the carburetor or the opposite end connected to the fuel petcock, whichever is simpler to access. The hose is likely fastened using a special crimped clamp. This may be cut or pried off to remove since you won't be using it again. Be sure to have a new hose clamp available. Next loosen both throttle cables from their adjusters located just beyond where they exit the throttle grip. A couple turns is usually all it takes to give you enough slack. If you count how many turns each adjuster is loosened then you can return them to the exact adjustment when reinstalling your carb. This is a good time to label each cable to avoid any confusion when reconnecting them to the carb's throttle cam. A simple "Top" and "Bottom" should suffice when tagging each cable. Now that you have enough slack in the cables you can pull the carburetor away from the manifold. A Harley carb is only held to the manifold with a slip fit rubber boot. Gently rock or twist the carb back and forth as you pull it away from the engine. Remove the cables that you tagged and remove any vacuum hoses. If your model has multiple vacuum hoses it would be a good idea to label these as well. With the carb removed, place upside down on a sturdy work surface. Do not remove the bowl at this point to prevent debris from entering the carburetor. The CV style Harley carburetor has a small cylindrical tower protruding from the bottom rear of the spigot (behind the bowl). The tower is plugged with a soft metal insert covering the mixture screw. Gaining access to this screw is key to fine tuning and must be remove. The metal plug is very soft and only requires a household drill and 7/64" to 1/8" bit. Secure the carb in either a vise or by other means that will allow the carburetor to remain steady. Drill a hole into the plug making sure not to "punch" through too fast. You don't want to damaged the mixture screw just below the plug. Allow the drill to slowly cut into the plug rather than push.

Tip: To keep from drilling too far into the plug, it has been suggested to wind electrical tape around your drill bit quite a few times about 3/16" from the tip. This will create a stop to keep the bit from drilling too deep. Pry the plug out using a pick or awl. You can also thread a sheet metal screw into the drilled hole and use this to pull the plug out. Now that the plug is removed clean the area around the mixture screw so no metal fragments remain. At this point there are two methods for adjusting the mixture.

Adjustment Method: Using a small flat head screwdriver turn the screw clockwise until it gently seats. DO NOT OVER TIGHTEN AS THIS WILL DAMAGE THE NEEDLE SCREW. Count how many turns it takes to reach the closed position. Mark the screwdriver if needed to properly count each turn. Now turn the screw out counter clockwise stopping at a 1/4 turn beyond that which you originally counted. For example, it you turned the screw in 1-1/2 turns then unscrew it 1-3/4 turns. This is your base starting point and alone will allow your idle mixture to be slightly richer than the factory's EPA setting. In many cases this will be the ideal setting. As an alternative to adjusting the mixture screw with a screwdriver, many prefer using an EZ-Just mixture screw to ease adjustments and fine tuning. If the mixture screw has been reset by the dealer or previous owner (evident by the plug already being removed), turn the screw clockwise until it seats. Now turn the screw outward 2 turns to establish a starting point. The same procedure applies if using an EZ-Just screw. Reinstall the carburetor back on your bike by reversing the steps taken during removal. Be sure to replace the fuel hose clamp and vacuum lines. It may be a matter of dexterity but I prefer to install the cables before pushing the carb back onto the manifold. Make certain the carb firmly seats back onto the manifold boot. Test the throttle for binding and smooth operation. Double check each hose and connection.

The air cleaner assembly MUST be installed prior to starting the engine, not only to hold the carburetor in place but to prevent having the carb backfire in your face while tuning. Start the engine as normal and bring up to operating temperature prior to fine tuning. Let the bike idle for no more than 5 minutes. The modified carburetor should allow your bike to run well enough for a mild test run around the block to speed up the warm-up process. With the engine warmed up and at idle you may now fine tune the idle mixture screw for optimal performance. Acquainting yourself with the adjustment screw location at the bottom rear of the carburetor prior to running the engine is advised, which also prevents burning your hands. You will need a small screw driver for adjusting the screw unless an EZ-Just has been installed. With the engine idling slow (no more than 900 rpm), turn the screw inward (clockwise) SLOWLY until the engine starts to stumble. You are working with the screw upside down so check to make sure you are turning the screw clockwise or inward.

Note: Be careful not to allow the screw to fall out as there is a very small spring, washer, and o-ring that will fall out as well. These items known as the mixture screw packing kit are not available from the dealer or manufacturer, however if you should lose these parts there is an aftermarket replacement kit available here.

If the engine will not idle on its own during this procedure, adjust the idle set screw on the throttle side of the carburetor until it idles correctly. Now turn the mixture screw outwards (counter-clockwise) until the engine begins to run smoothly, then add 1/8 of a turn. Maintain proper idle speed and repeat the adjustment each time you adjust the idle speed. Blip the throttle a couple of times and observe the results. If the engine responds quickly with a smooth blast and no backfiring through the carburetor, you have your idle mixture right. If backfiring occurs through the carburetor then adjust the idle mixture screw out another 1/8 turn. Normally, the mixture screw should only require 2 to 3 turns. Anything above 4 turns indicates the pilot jet is too small.

Twin Cam Harley engines have a mixture screw sweet spot approximately 2 to 2-1/8 turns out from seat, whereas Big Twin Evo and Sportsters can require up to 3 turns. Adjusting the mixture screw out to far will result in an overly rich fuel mixture in the low RPM range. Avoid tuning too rich, thus leading to poor gas mileage and fouled plugs. Optimal setting on most Harley's is approximately 1/4 turn clockwise when backed out from the point of backfiring (coughing). Take your newly tuned bike for a ride and note how it idles and responds off idle. If you experience any coughing through the carburetor, adjust the mixture out another 1/8 of a turn.

Black smoke seen from the exhaust at idle or a feeling of sluggishness off idle indicates you may have set the mixture too rich. If your bike is now idling steady and responds well from a start then you are all set. If your engine still runs lean you should move on to rejetting your carburetor. The same stock Harley Davidson carburetor has been used on all production bikes from 1989 to 2006 due to it's reliability and ability to adapt to different conditions. With just the right amount of tuning there's no reason why you can't have some of the same performance gains advertised by the major racing carb manufacturers.

Stage 1 tuner kits are available for those who wish to take their carb to the next level of performance.

Courtesy :-

Wednesday, September 2, 2009

Auto Tech

Tuning the Carburetor
Part 1

Harley carburetor jetting should only be performed after completing the fine tuning procedure described under Performance Tuning and your Harley is still running too lean.

A good rule of thumb is to replace the Pilot Jet first and only replace the Main Jet once the engine's idle and midrange are satisfactorily tuned. The Main Jet is only used at 3/4 to full throttle and has no effect on the idle or midrange mixture.

Main jet replacement should be reserved until after the slow idle jet is replaced and mixture is tuned unless a lean condition is apparent during full throttle. Harley carburetor jetting can be accomplished with minimal mechanical knowledge.
Tools to perform this task include just a simple set of screwdrivers. You will also need an assortment of jets or a Stage 1 kit. Remove the 4 screws securing the bowl to the base of the carburetor and remove the bowl. Using a narrow 1/8" flat head screwdriver unscrew the Pilot Jet from within the orifice pictured. The jet size is stamped into the top of the jet (i.e. 42). Be careful not to strip the head of the jet.

Pilot Jet location
With a flat head screwdriver unscrew the Main Jet from the brass needle jet holder (aka Emulsion Tube).

Note the jet size stamped into the top of the jet (i.e. 165). There is no need to remove the emulsion tube unless required for cleaning. I don't recommend "Power Tubes" as they change the mixture and ability to tune with stock jets.

Main Jet
Replace the Pilot Jet with one size larger. This of course assumes that you are starting out with the stock jet size. Harley Davidson Pilot Jets for CV Carburetors are normally sold in sizes 40, 42, 45, 48, 50, and higher. A Stage 1 Carb Kit will normally offer you a proper range of jets for your particular model. If your stock jet was a #42 the next size larger will be #44 or #45. Only increase the jet sizing one size at a time to avoid an overly rich idle. An EZ-Just mixture screw will also assist in fine tuning once you have the correct jetting.

Pilot and Main Jets
Only replace the Main Jet with one size larger after properly tuning your slow/idle jet settings. Main Jets are sized incrementally by 5, so if your stock jet was a #175 the next size larger will be #180. you should only increase the jet sizing one size at a time. Avoid installing jets that are too rich as this will create a sluggish feeling at full throttle as well as contribute to plug fouling.

Many Twin Cam models (except California) are already appropriately jetted with a main jet that will allow for a good starting point for tuning. As mentioned, proper mixture adjustment is key to proper jetting and should be performed first.

Reinstall the bowl making sure to align the accelerator pump shaft and rubber boot. Install the carburetor back onto the bike and perform the tuning procedure as described under Carburetor Tuning.
As you can see, Harley carburetor jetting is a fairly simple procedure that under most conditions will yield greater performance when requiring a richer fuel mixture.

The same procedure can be applied on any other motorcycles or scooters for performance purpose. But jet sizes are different for all the vehicles. The given jet size data in the article is related to HD's not Indian vehicles. So please do not get confuse.