Thursday, March 25, 2010


Re starting my blog....Enjoy articles everyday and get information regarding automotive tech. Thanks.

Tuesday, February 2, 2010

Cooler For LB500RE

BS Carb slide porting for better throttle response.

Thursday, January 28, 2010


A ram-air intake is any intake design which uses the dynamic air pressure created by vehicle motion to increase the static air pressure inside of the intake manifold on an engine, thus allowing a greater massflow through the engine and hence increasing engine power.

The ram air intake works by reducing the intake air velocity by increasing the cross sectional area of the intake ducting. When gas velocity goes down the dynamic pressure is reduced while the static pressure is increased. The increased static pressure in the plenum chamber has a positive effect on engine power, both because of the pressure itself and the increased air density this higher pressure gives.

Ram-air systems are used on high performance vehicles, most often on motorcycles and race cars. Ram-air has been a feature on some cars since the late sixties, but fell out of favor in the seventies, and has only recently made a comeback. Modern parachutes use a ram-air system to pressurize a series of cells to provide the aerofoil shape.

At low speeds (subsonic speeds) increases in static pressure are however limited to a few percent. Given that the air velocity is reduced to zero without losses the pressure increase can be calculated according. The lack of losses also means without heating the air. Thus a ram-air intake also is a cold air intake. It should be noted that in some cars the intake is placed behind the radiator, where not only the air is hot, but the pressure is below ambient pressure. The ram-air intake effect may be small, but so are other mild tuning techniques to increase cylinder filling like using larger, fresh air filters, high flow mass flow sensors, velocity stacks, tuned air box, large tubes from the filter to the engine, and fuel injection.


Tuesday, January 26, 2010

Traffic Authorities in India

Traffic Authorities in India

Traffic Offences and Penalties in India
State Wise - Regional Transport Offices (R.T.O.) Series
Driving License in India
Frequently Used Forms at RTO's
Traffic Authorities in India
The transport Department is one of the largest revenue earning departments. dealing with various transport related matters like driving licenses, registration of motor vehicles, grant and renewal of permits and other regulatory and enforcement services. The transport department works under the provision of the section 213 of the MV Act, 1988. The transport department is primarily established for enforcement of the provisions of the motor vehicle act, 1988.

Working Authorities:
Transport Department works with two of the concerned authorities, under Section 68 of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988. These are discussed below:
1. State Transport Authority: The main functions of the State Transport Authority are:

o To co-ordinate and regulate the activities and policies of the Regional Transport
o Entering into bilateral agreements with other States.
o To d ecide the quota for counter signature permits.
o Grant of All India and State wide permits.

2. Regional Transport Authority: The main functions of the Regional Transport Authority
o To exercise and discharge the powers and functions conferred on them under the
provisions of Motor Vehicles Act, which mainly relate to control of transport by way
of grant of permits.

Services Provided by R.T.O:
Regional Transport Office provides the following services:
1. Related to Driving License:
o Issuing learner license.
o Renewal of learner license.
o Issuing driving license.
o Renewal of driving license (issued in same and other office).
o Endorsement in driving license.
o Noting change of address in learner and driving license.
o Issuing International driving permit.
o Conductor license
And related services.
2. Related to Registration of Vehicles
o Temporary registration of vehicles.
o Permanent registration of vehicles.
o Transfer of ownership.
o Entry of hypothecation/ hire-purchase/ lease agreement.
o Termination of hypothecation/ hire-purchase/ lease agreement.
o Change of address.
o Issue of no objection certificate.
o Issue of clearance certificate
And related transactions.

3. Collection of Tax
o Payment of tax
The services granted by these authorities are regulated, monitored and enforced by two of the
Enforcement Agencies:
· Enforcement wing of the transport department.
· Traffic police.
If in any case somebody violates the rules and regulations related to traffic laws – an offence then
they are bound to issue Challans against the offender under some penal actions as per M.V Act,

Some Related Acts
M.V.A. Motor Vehicle Act, 1988
C.M.V.R. Central Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989
D.M.V.R. Delhi Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989
R.R.R. Rules of Road Regulation, 1989

Traffic Offences and Penalties in India

The Indian Road rules, titled "Rules of the Road Regulation", were brought into effect since July, 1989. These rules are germane to the Indian drivers (all inclusive of two, three and four wheelers), while on the road to ensure an orderly traffic and a safer journey. Violation of these "Rules of Road Regulation" is a punishable transgression as per the city specific traffic police rules and the "Motor
Vehicle Act". Enforcement of these traffic laws - rules, regulations and acts can bear out the road accidents. These laws are enforced by issuing challans in the name of the offenders and teaching them a lesson by making them pay penalties. An indicative list of the possible offences and their respective penalties is formulated below:
1.1 Driving without a Valid License
Rs. 500/- and /or
imprisonment ( 3
3 r/w 181 MVA
Allowing vehicle to be driven by
a person who does not possess a
Valid License.
Rs. 1000/- and/or
imprisonment ( 3
5 r/w 180 MVA
Not carrying documents as
Rs. 100/- 130(3) r/w 177 MVA
1.4 Driving without Valid Insurance.
Rs. 1000/- and/or
imprisonment ( 3
130 r/w 177 MVA
1.5 Driving without Valid Permit. Rs. 5000/- ( not less
than Rs. 2000/-)
130 r/w 177 MVA
1.6 Driving without Valid Fitness. Rs. 5000/- ( not less
than Rs. 2000/-)
130 r/w 177 MVA
1.7 Vehicle without R.C. Rs 2000/- 39 r/w192 MVA
2.1.1 Driving by Minor . Rs. 500/- 4 r/w 181 MVA

Allowing Unauthorized person to drive .
Rs. 1000/- 5 r/w 180 MVA
2.1.3 Driving without Helmet. Rs. 100/- 129 r/w177 MVA
2.1.4 Seat Belts not fastened. Rs. 100/- 138(3) CMVR
177 MVA
2.1.5 Rough/Rash/Negligent Driving . Rs. 1000/- 184 MVA
2.1.6 Dangerous or hasty Driving.
and/or imprisonment
( 6 months)
112-183 MVA
2.1.7 Not Driving in Proper Lane. Court Challan 66 r/w 192 MVA
Driving in the center and not to
left side.
Rs.100/- 2 RRR r/w 177 MVA
2.1.9 Driving against One Way. Rs.100/- 17 (i) RRR 177 MVA
2.1.10 Reversing without due care and
Rs. 100/- MMVR 233
177 MVA
2.1.11 Taking “U” turn during outlawed
Rs.100/- 12 RRR
177 MVA
Failing to take precaution while
taking a “Turn”.
177 MVA
Failing to decelerate at
177 MVA
Failing to carry on left of traffic
177 MVA
2.1.15 Carrying persons on Footboard. Rs.100/- 123-177 MVA
2.1.16 Carrying persons causing
hindrance to the driver.
Rs.100/- 125-177 MVA
2.1.17 Trippling. Rs. 100/- 128/177 MVA
2.1.18 Driving on Footpath. Rs.100/- RRR 177 MVA
2.1.19 Stopping at pedestrian crossing
or crossing a Stop Line.
Rs.100/- RRR 177 MVA
2.2 Road Marking Related Offences
2.2.1 Violation of Yellow Line. Rs. 100/- 119/177 MVA
2.2.2 Violation of Stop Line. Rs. 100/- 113(1)/177 DMVR
2.2.3 Violation of Mandatory Signs . Rs. 100/- 119/177 MVA
2.3 Number Plate Related Offences

Use of Offensive Number Plate
for vehicle used in driving.
CMVR 105 (2) (ii)
177 MVA
2.3.2 Displaying 'Applied For'. Rs. 4500/- 39/192 MVA
2.4 Vehicle Light Related Offences
Improper use of headlights/tail
light for vehicle used in driving.
CMVR 105 (2) (ii)
177 MVA
Using High Beam where not
Rs. 100/-
112(G) A DMVR
177 MVA
2.5 Horn Related Offences
2.5.1 Driving without Horn. Rs. 100/- 119(1)/177 CMVR
Improper horn usage while
CMVR 105 (2) (ii)
177 MVA
2.6 Traffic Police Related Offences
Disobeying Traffic Police Officer
in uniform.
Rs. 100/-
119 MVA
22(a) RRR
177 MVA
2.6.2 Driving against Police Signal. Rs. 100/- 119 r/w 177 MVA
2.6.3 Disobeying manual Traffic Signal. Rs. 100/-
239 MMVR
22(a) RRR
177 MVA
2.7 Traffic Signal Related Offences
Disobeying Traffic signal / Sign
Rs. 100/-
22(b) RRR
239 MMVR
177 MVA
2.7.2 Failing to give Signal. Rs. 100/-
121 RRR
177 MVA
2.7.3 Jumping Signal. Rs.100/- 119/177 MVA
2.8 Speed and Overtake Related Offences
Exceeding the prescribed Speed
Up to Rs.1000/- 112-183 MVA
2.8.2 Abetment for Over Speeding . Rs.300/- 112/183(2) MVA
2.8.3 Overtaking perilously. Rs.100/- 6 (a) RRR r/w 177 MVA
Failing to confer way to sanction
177 MVA
2.8.5 Overtaking from Wrong Side . Rs. 100/- RRR 6/1/177 MVA
2.9 Other Offences
2.9.1 Disobeying Lawful Directions. Rs. 500/- 132/179 MVA
Driving under influence of
Alcohol / Drugs.
and/or imprisonment
( 6 months)
185 MVA
Using Mobile Phone while
Up to 1000/- 184 MVA
Leaving vehicle in unoccupied
Rs.100/- 126-177 MVA
Leaving vehicle in unsafe
Rs.100/- 122 177 MVA
2.9.6 In case of a minor Accident. Rs. 1000/- 184 MVA
2.9.7 Playing music while Driving. Rs. 100/- 102/177 MVA
2.9.8 Driving without Silencer. Rs. 100/- 120/190(2)/177CMVR
2.9.9 Driving when mentally or
physically unfit.
Court Challan 186 MVA
3.1 Two Wheeler. Rs.100/- RRR 177 MVA
Car , Jeep, Taxi, Auto
Rs.200/- RRR 177 MVA
3.3 Truck, Tanker, Trailor. Rs.600/- RRR 177 MVA
4.1 Smoking in Public Transport. Rs. 100/- 86(1)(5)/177 DMVR
4.2 Pollution Not Under Control. Rs. 100/- 99(1)(a)/177 DMVR
4.3 Fixing multi-toned/shrill horn. Rs.500/- 119 CMVR
190(2) MVA
4.4 Blowing Pressure Horn. Rs. 100/- 96(1)/177 DMVR
4.5 Silencer/muffler making noise. Rs.500/-
CMVR 120
190(2) MVA
4.6 Smoky Exhaust. Rs.500/-
115 CMVR
190(2) MVA
4.7 Using horn in Silence Zone. Rs.100/-
21(ii) RRR
177 MVA
Using Vehicle in Unsafe
Court Challan 192 MVA
When motor vehicle is out of
state for more than 12
Rs.100/- 47-177 MVA
Particulars to be printed on
transport vehicles.
Rs.100/- 84(G)-177 MVA
5.4 Without Wiper Rs.100/-
CMVR 101
5,12 177 MVA
5.4 Without Side Mirror. Rs.100/- 5, 7/177 MVA
5.5 Defective tyres. Rs.100/- CMVR 94
No indication board on left
hand drive vehicle.
Rs.100/- 120, 177 MVA
Sale of motor vehicle/alteration
of motor vehicle in
contravention of Act.
52/191 MVA, 32/192.66/192
MV Act
5.8 Vehicles fitted with dark
glasses/sun films.
Rs.100/- 100 CMVR
177 MVA
Driving without proper number
plate/ illuminating rear number
236 MMVR
177 MVA
Failing to display public carrier
116 MMVR
177 MVA
Using private vehicle for
commercial purposes.
Rs. 5000/-
( not less than Rs. 2000/-)
Any sort of misconduct with
passengers, not wearing
uniform/not displaying badge.
MMVR 21(18)
177 MVA
5.13 Overloading a goods vehicle. Rs. 2000/-plus Rs. 1000/-
for every additional ton.
MMVR 93(u)(i)
177 MVA
5.14 Carrying goods in a dangerous
or hazardous manner.
Imprisonment and/or fine of
Rs. 3000/-
29 RRR
177 MVA
Infringement of permit
Imprisonment and/or fine of
Rs. 5000/-( not less than
Rs. 2000/-)
5.16 Use of Colored light on Vehicle Rs. 100/- 97(2)/177 DMVR
6.1 Plying in 'NO ENTRY' Time Upto 2000/- 115/194 MVA
6. Violation of Time Table Court Challan 11/177, 2/177, 66/192 MVA
6.2 High and Long / Load in
Rs. 100/- 29 RRR/177 MVA
Carrying animals in goods
vehicles in contravention of
177 MVA
Carrying persons dangerously
or carrying persons in goods
MMVR 108
177 MVA
6.5 Goods in Passenger Vehicles - -
6.6 Dangerous projection of goods. Rs.100/-
229 MMVR
29 RRR
177 MVA
6.7 Carrying goods unsecured. Rs.100/- MMVR 202
177 MVA
6. Carrying goods more than 11 Rs.100/- MMVR 93(u) (i)
feet high. 177 MVA
6. Limit Of weight and limitation
on Use.
Court Challan 113/194(1) MVA
6. Driver refuses to weigh
Court Challan 114/194(2) MVA
6.9 Load on Tail Board. Rs.100/- MMVR 202
177 MVA
6.10 Misbehavior by Taxi/TSR
Rs. 100/- 11(3)/177 DMVR
6.11 Over Charging by Taxi/TSR
Rs. 100/- 11(8)/177 DMVR
6.12 Charging without Meter. Rs. 100/- 11(8)/177 DMVR
6.13 Refusal by Taxi/TSR Driver. Rs. 100/- 11(9)/177 DMVR
6.14 Driver without Uniform. Rs. 100/- 7/177 DMVR
6.14 Driver without Badge. Rs. 100/- 22(1)/177 DMVR
6.15 Conductor without Uniform. Rs. 100/- 23(1)/177 DMVR
6.16 Conductor without Badge. Rs. 100/- 22(1)/177 DMVR
6.17 Stopping without Bus stop Court Challan 66/192 MVA
Power to detain Vehicle used in
contravention of section 3.4,39
or 66(1) MV Act.
Court Challan 207(1) MVA
7.1 Parking in the direction of flow
of traffic.
Rs.100/- 22(a) RRR
177 MVA
7.2 Parking away from footpath
towards road.
Rs.100/- 15(2) RRR
177 MVA
7.3 Parking against flow of traffic. Rs.100/- 15(2) RRR
177 MVA
7.4 Parking causing Obstruction. Rs. 100/- 15(2) RRR
177 MVA
7.5 Parking on a Taxi Stand. Rs. 100/- 15(2) RRR
177 MVA
7.6 Parking in not any prescribed
Rs. 100/- 15(1) RRR
177 MVA
7.7 Parking at any Corner. Rs. 100/- 15(i) RRR
177 MVA
7.8 Parking within 15 meters on
either side of Bus Stop.
Rs. 100/- 15(2) RRR
177 MVA
7.9 Parking on Bridge. Rs. 100/- 15(2) (i) RRR
177 MVA
7.10 Parking at Traffic Island. Rs. 100/- 15(i) RRR
177 MVA
7.11 Parking in “No” Parking Area. Rs. 100/- 15(2) RRR
177 MVA
7.12 Parked on Pedestrian Crossing. Rs. 100/- 15(2)(iii) RRR
177 MVA
7.13 Parking on Footpath. Rs. 100/- 15(2)(ii) RRR
177 MVA
7.14 Parking in front of a gate. Rs. 100/-
15(2)(viii) RRR
177 MVA
7.15 Parking causing obstruction. Rs. 100/-
15(1) RRR
177 MVA
RRR: Rules of Road Regulations 1989
MVA: Motor Vehicles Act 1988
MMVR: Maharasthra Motor Vehicles Rules 1989
CMVR: Central Motor Vehicles Rules 1989
Besides these provisions, it is mandatory for every driver driving, to carry the following documents
while driving:
S.No Documents
1 Valid driving license.
2 Vehicle Registration Certificate.
3 Road Tax Token.
4 Pollution under Control Certificate.
5 Current Insurance Certificate.
Any driver can be held from his driving licence if falls in line with any of the given criteria:
S.No Criterion
1 Driving is dangerous to the public.
2 Under the age of 18 yrs.
3 Drunk or addicted to dugs.
4 Illegal driving license.
5 Driving a vehicle with a objectionable history.
Often, people feel exempted on paying challans, only to commit the offences time and again.
Rather, they should take a lesson not to practice the mistake any more. After all this all is for a good
faith for all. "Keeping an Eye on oneself" is indeed the best rule and best penalty.
State Wise - Regional Transport Offices (R.T.O.) Series
To keep a systematic record of the identity of the vehicles and their owners, each vehicle is given a
unique number which is registered in the relevant Transport Authority according to the address of its
owner. Each Transport Authority has been allotted specific series for registration of vehicles so that
the vehicle can be traced to the owner easily and proper record is maintained in respect of each
vehicle. Here is a list of registration numbers series of all the States in India for ready reference.
S.NO State R.T.O. Series
1 Andaman & Nicobar AN-01 to AN-02
2 Andhra Pradesh AP-01 to AP37D
3 Arunachal Pradesh AR-01 to AR-14
4 Assam AS-01 to AS-24
5 Bihar BR-01 to BR-47
6 Chandigarh CH-01
7 Chhattisgarh CG-01 to CG-
8 Dadra and Nagar Haveli DN-09
9 Daman and Diu DD-03 & DD-02
10 Delhi DL-1 to DL-9
11 Goa GA-01 to GA- 02
12 Gujarat GJ-01to GJ-20
13 Haryana HR-01 to HR-51
14 Himachal Pradesh HP-01 to HP-52
15 Jammu and Kashmir JK-01 to JK-14
16 Jharkhand JH-01 to JH-
17 Karnataka KA-01 to KA-40
18 Kerala KL-01to KL-15
19 Lakshadweep LD-01
20 Madhya Pradesh MP-01 to MP-28
21 Maharashtra MH-01 to MH-35
22 Manipur MN-01 to MN-04
23 Meghalaya ML-01 to ML-10
24 Mizoram MZ-01 to MZ-03
25 Mumbai MH-01 to MH-03
26 Nagaland NL-01 to NL-06
27 Orissa OR-01 to OR-18
28 Pondicherry PY-01 to PY-04
29 Punjab PB-01 to PB-56
30 Rajasthan RJ-01 to RJ-30
31 Sikkim SK-01 to SK-03
32 Tamil Nadu TN-01 to TN-74
33 Tripura TR-01 to TR-03
34 Uttar Pradesh UP-01 to UP-96
35 Uttaranchal UA-01 to UA-
36 West Bengal WB-01 to WB-79
Driving License in India
In India the minimum age required for driving is 16 years for motorcycles of 50cc or less and 18 for
all the other vehicles.
Few Points to Remember
· According to the Motor Vehicle Act 1988, a valid Driving Licence is necessary to drive any
motor vehicle on public roads.
· Driving License is issued by the Regional Transport Office (RTO) of Motor Vehicles
Inspector's Office after the recipient has passed a driving test and has proved the required
· The Driving License in India is segregated as Motorcycle License, Light Motor Vehicle (LMV)
license, and Heavy Motor Vehicle (HMV) License.
· Learner's License is issued after passing a theory test.
· The legislation of Driving License is done through the 'Rules of the Road Regulation' and the
Motor Vehicle Act 1988.
· The driver of the vehicle is required to keep the original copy of the license while driving.
Types of Driving Licenses in India
To drive a motor vehicle in any public place an effective Driving License is necessary. By effective
Driving License it mean license issued to a person authorizing him/her to drive vehicle of that
particular category. There are different types of licenses issued by the RTO offices. Here we will
discuss each of them separately.
1. Learner Driving License
This is a temporary license that is valid up to 6 months from the date of issue. It is basically
issued to learn driving of Motor Vehicles.
2. Permanent Driving License
Permanent driving license is issued to those who become eligible for it after thirty days (to
apply within 180 days) from the date of issue of the learner license. Person suppose to get
permanent driving license should be conversant about the vehicle systems, driving, traffic
rules & regulations.
3. Duplicate Driving License
In case of loss, theft, or on mutilation, Duplicate License is issued. The documents to be
produced are FIR of the lost license, challan clearance report from RTA Office (in case of
Commercial licence renewal) and an application in Form LLD. The particulars are verified by
the authority from the records. The duplicate license will have the valid period same as the
previous license. If the license is lost and expired by more than 6 months it requires
permission from Head Quarter of Transport Department.
It is recommended to keep a photocopy of the original license or particulars of license noted
in order to make it easier for the issuing authority to locate the particulars from their
4. International Driving License
The motor licensing authority also issues International Driving License. The validity of this
license is for one year. Person visiting the country is required to collect the license from
there within one year period. Apart from address proof and birth certificate, one has to
produce a valid passport and valid visa while applying.
5. Motorcyle License or Two-wheeler License
Two-wheeler license is issued by the Regional Transport Authority (RTO) to permit driving of
only two-wheeler vehicles like bike, scooter and moped.
6. Light Motor Vehicle License (LMV)
Light Motor Vehicle License is issued to drive light vehicles like auto rickshaws, motor car,
jeep, taxi, three-wheeler delivery vans, etc.
7. Heavy Motor Vehicle License (HMV)
Heavy Motor Vehicle License is issued to drive heavy vehicles like trucks, buses, tourist
coaches, cranes, goods carriages, etc. A person with HMV license can drive light vehicles
but Light Motor Vehicle License do not permit to drive heavy vehicles.
Frequently Used Forms at RTO's
Here few frequently used form at RTOs are mentioned so you can download to print and use any of
S.NO Form Number Form's Purpose
1 RTO Form No.1 Physical Fitness
2 RTO Form No.1A Medical Certificate
3 RTO Form No. 2 Application for Learning License
4 RTO Form No. 3 Learner's License
5 RTO Form No. 4 For Permanent License
6 RTO Form No. 9 For Renewal of License
7 RTO Form LLD For Duplicate License
8 RTO Form No. 20 For Registration of Vehicles
9 RTO Form No. 25 For Re- registration of Vehicles
10 RTO Form No. 26 For Duplicate Certificate of Registration
11 RTO Form No. 27 For New Registration from Other State
12 RTO Form No. 28 For No Objection Certificate
13 RTO Form No. 29 For Transfer of Ownership
14 RTO Form No. 30 For Transfer of Ownership
15 RTO Form No. 31 For Death Certificate
16 RTO Form No. 32 For Registration of Public Auction Vehicle
17 RTO Form No. 33 For Address change in Registration
18 RTO Form No. 34 For Hpothecation Endorsement
19 RTO Form No. 35 For Hpothecation Termination
20 RTO Form No. 60 For Income Tax Information
21 RTO Form No. 61 For Income Tax Exemption Case
22 RTO Application- IDP For International Driving Permit
23 RTO Application- PSV For Public Service Vehicle
24 RTO Application - A Form of Application for verification of the
25 Police Report Police Report
26 Character Certificate Form of Verification Character and Antecedents
27 Driving Licence Documentation Driving Licence Documentation

Information collected from Internet.

Wednesday, January 20, 2010

Bharat Stage Emission Standards

The first Indian emission regulations were idle emission limits which became effective in 1989. These idle emission regulations were soon replaced by mass emission limits for both petrol (1991) and diesel (1992) vehicles, which were gradually tightened during the 1990’s. Since the year 2000, India started adopting European emission and fuel regulations for four-wheeled light-duty and for heavy-dc. Indian own emission regulations still apply to two- and three-wheeled vehicles.

Current requirement is that all transport vehicles carry a fitness certificate that is renewed each year after the first two years of new vehicle registration.

On October 6, 2003, the National Auto Fuel Policy has been announced, which envisages a phased program for introducing Euro 2 - 4 emission and fuel regulations by 2010. The implementation schedule of EU emission standards in India is summarized in Table 1.[1]

Table 1: Indian Emission Standards (4-Wheel Vehicles) Standard Reference Date Region
India 2000 Euro 1 2000 Nationwide
Bharat Stage II Euro 2 2001 NCR*, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai
2003.04 NCR*, 10 Cities†
2005.04 Nationwide
Bharat Stage III Euro 3 2005.04 NCR*, 10 Cities†
2010.04 Nationwide
Bharat Stage IV Euro 4 2010.04 NCR*, 10 Cities†
* National Capital Region (Delhi)
† Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur and Agra

The above standards apply to all new 4-wheel vehicles sold and registered in the respective regions. In addition, the National Auto Fuel Policy introduces certain emission requirements for interstate buses with routes originating or terminating in Delhi or the other 10 cities.

For 2-and 3-wheelers, Bharat Stage II (Euro 2) will be applicable from April 1, 2005 and Stage III (Euro 3) standards would come in force from April 1, 2010.[2]

Trucks and buses

Exhaust gases from vehicles form a significant portion of air pollution which is harmful to human health and the environmentEmission standards for new heavy-duty diesel engines—applicable to vehicles of GVW > 3,500 kg—are listed in Table 2.

Table 2 Emission Standards for Diesel Truck and Bus Engines, g/kWh Year Reference Test CO HC NOx PM
1992 - ECE R49 17.3-32.6 2.7-3.7 - -
1996 - ECE R49 11.20 2.40 14.4 -
2000 Euro I ECE R49 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36*
2005† Euro II ECE R49 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15
2010† Euro III ESC 2.1 0.66 5.0 0.10
ETC 5.45 0.78 5.0 0.16
2010‡ Euro IV ESC 1.5 0.46 3.5 0.02
ETC 4.0 0.55 3.5 0.03
* 0.612 for engines below 85 kW
† earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1 ‡ only in selected regions, see Table 1

More details on Euro I-III regulations can be found in the EU heavy-duty engine standards page.

Light duty diesel vehicles
Emission standards for light-duty diesel vehicles (GVW ≤ 3,500 kg) are summarized in Table 3. Ranges of emission limits refer to different classes (by reference mass) of light commercial vehicles; compare the EU light-duty vehicle emission standards page for details on the Euro 1 and later standards. The lowest limit in each range applies to passenger cars (GVW ≤ 2,500 kg; up to 6 seats).

Table 3 Emission Standards for Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles, g/km Year Reference CO HC HC+NOx NOx PM
1992 - 17.3-32.6 2.7-3.7 - - -
1996 - 5.0-9.0 - 2.0-4.0 - -
2000 Euro 1 2.72-6.90 - 0.97-1.70 0.14-0.25 -
2005† Euro 2 1.0-1.5 - 0.7-1.2 0.08-0.17 -
2010† Euro 3 0.64
0.95 - 0.56
0.86 0.50
0.78 0.05
2010‡ Euro 4 0.50
0.74 - 0.30
0.46 0.25
0.39 0.025
† earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1
‡ only in selected regions, see Table 1

The test cycle has been the ECE + EUDC for low power vehicles (with maximum speed limited to 90 km/h). Before 2000, emissions were measured over an Indian test cycle.

Engines for use in light-duty vehicles can be also emission tested using an engine dynamometer. The respective emission standards are listed in Table 4.

Table 4 Emission Standards for Light-Duty Diesel Engines, g/kWh Year Reference CO HC NOx PM
1992 - 14.0 3.5 18.0 -
1996 - 11.20 2.40 14.4 -
2000 Euro I 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36*
2005† Euro II 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15
* 0.612 for engines below 85 kW
† earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1

Light duty gasoline vehicles
4-wheel vehicles
Emissions standards for gasoline vehicles (GVW ≤ 3,500 kg) are summarized in Table 5. Ranges of emission limits refer to different classes of light commercial vehicles (compare the EU light-duty vehicle emission standards page). The lowest limit in each range applies to passenger cars (GVW ≤ 2,500 kg; up to 6 seats).

Table 5 Emission Standards for Gasoline Vehicles (GVW ≤ 3,500 kg), g/km Year Reference CO HC HC+NOx NOx
1991 - 14.3-27.1 2.0-2.9 -
1996 - 8.68-12.4 - 3.00-4.36
1998* - 4.34-6.20 - 1.50-2.18
2000 Euro 1 2.72-6.90 - 0.97-1.70
2005† Euro 2 2.2-5.0 - 0.5-0.7
2010† Euro 3 2.3
5.22 0.20
0.29 - 0.15
2010‡ Euro 4 1.0
2.27 0.1
0.16 - 0.08
* for catalytic converter fitted vehicles

† earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1 ‡ only in selected regions, see Table 1

Gasoline vehicles must also meet an evaporative (SHED) limit of 2 g/test (effective 2000).

3- and 2-wheel vehicles
Emission standards for 3- and 2-wheel gasoline vehicles are listed in the following tables.[3]

Table 6 Emission Standards for 3-Wheel Gasoline Vehicles, g/km Year CO HC HC+NOx
1991 12-30 8-12 -
1996 6.75 - 5.40
2000 4.00 - 2.00
2005 (BS II) 2.25 - 2.00
2010.04 (BS III) 1.25 - 1.25
Table 7 Emission Standards for 2-Wheel Gasoline Vehicles, g/km Year CO HC HC+NOx
1991 12-30 8-12 -
1996 5.50 - 3.60
2000 2.00 - 2.00
2005 (BS II) 1.5 - 1.5
2010.04 (BS III) 1.0 - 1.0
Table 8 Emission Standards for 2- And 3-Wheel Diesel Vehicles, g/km Year CO HC+NOx PM
2005.04 1.00 0.85 0.10
2010.04 0.50 0.50 0.05

Overview of the emission norms in India
1991 - Idle CO Limits for Gasoline Vehicles and Free Acceleration Smoke for Diesel Vehicles, Mass Emission Norms for Gasoline Vehicles.
1992 - Mass Emission Norms for Diesel Vehicles.
1996 - Revision of Mass Emission Norms for Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles, mandatory fitment of Catalytic Converter for Cars in Metros on Unleaded Gasoline.
1998 - Cold Start Norms Introduced.
2000 - India 2000 (Eq. to Euro I) Norms, Modified IDC (Indian Driving Cycle), Bharat Stage II Norms for Delhi.
2001 - Bharat Stage II (Eq. to Euro II) Norms for All Metros, Emission Norms for CNG & LPG Vehicles.
2003 - Bharat Stage II (Eq. to Euro II) Norms for 11 major cities.
2005 - From 1 April Bharat Stage III (Eq. to Euro III) Norms for 11 major cities.
2010 - Bharat Stage III Emission Norms for 4-wheelers for entire country whereas Bharat Stage - IV (Eq. to Euro IV) for 11 major cities. Bharat Stage IV also has norms on OBD (simalar to Euro III but diluted)

CO2 emission
India’s auto sector accounts for about 18 per cent of the total CO2 emissions in the country. Relative CO2 emissions from transport have risen rapidly in recent years, but like the EU, currently there are no standards for CO2 emission limits for pollution from vehicles.

Obligatory labeling
There is also no provision to make the CO2 emissions labeling mandatory on cars in the country. A system exists in the EU to ensure that information relating to the fuel economy and CO2 emissions of new passenger cars offered for sale or lease in the Community is made available to consumers in order to enable consumers to make an informed choice.

Non road diesel engines
Construction machinery
Emission standards for diesel construction machinery were adopted on 21 September 2006. The standards are structured into two tiers:

Bharat (CEV) Stage II—These standards are based on the EU Stage I requirements, but also cover smaller engines that were not regulated under the EU Stage I.
Bharat (CEV) Stage III—These standards are based on US Tier 2/3 requirements.
The standards are summarized in the following table:

Table 9 Bharat (CEV) Emission Standards for Diesel Construction Machinery Engine Power Date CO HC HC+NOx NOx PM
kW g/kWh
Bharat (CEV) Stage II
P < 8 2008.10 8.0 1.3 - 9.2 1.00
8 ≤ P < 19 2008.10 6.6 1.3 - 9.2 0.85
19 ≤ P < 37 2007.10 6.5 1.3 - 9.2 0.85
37 ≤ P < 75 2007.10 6.5 1.3 - 9.2 0.85
75 ≤ P < 130 2007.10 5.0 1.3 - 9.2 0.70
130 ≤ P < 560 2007.10 5.0 1.3 - 9.2 0.54
Bharat (CEV) Stage III
P < 8 2011.04 8.0 - 7.5 - 0.80
8 ≤ P < 19 2011.04 6.6 - 7.5 - 0.80
19 ≤ P < 37 2011.04 5.5 - 7.5 - 0.60
37 ≤ P < 75 2011.04 5.0 - 4.7 - 0.40
75 ≤ P < 130 2011.04 5.0 - 4.0 - 0.30
130 ≤ P < 560 2011.04 3.5 - 4.0 - 0.20

The limit values apply for both type approval (TA) and conformity of production (COP) testing. Testing is performed on an engine dynamometer over the ISO 8178 C1 (8-mode) and D2 (5-mode) test cycles. The Bharat Stage III standards must be met over the useful life periods shown in Table 10. Alternatively, manufacturers may use fixed emission deterioration factors of 1.1 for CO, 1.05 for HC, 1.05 for NOx, and 1.1 for PM.

Table 10 Bharat (CEV) Stage III Useful Life Periods Power Rating Useful Life Period
< 19 kW 3000
19-37 kW constant speed 3000
variable speed 5000
> 37 kW 8000

Agricultural tractors
Emission standards for diesel agricultural tractors are summarized in Table 11.

Table 11 Indian Emission Standards (4-Wheel Vehicles) Standard Reference Date Region
India 2000 Euro 1 2000 Nationwide
Bharat Stage II Euro 2 2001 NCR*, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai
2003.04 NCR*, 11 Cities†
2005.04 Nationwide
Bharat Stage III Euro 3 2005.04 NCR*, 11 Cities†
2010.04 Nationwide
Bharat Stage IV Euro 4 2010.04 NCR*, 11 Cities†
* National Capital Region (Delhi)

† Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Secunderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur and Agra

Emissions are tested over the ISO 8178 C1 (8-mode) cycle. For Bharat (Trem) Stage III A, the useful life periods and deterioration factors are the same as for Bharat (CEV) Stage III, Table 10.

Electricity generation
Generator sets
Emissions from new diesel engines used in generator sets have been regulated by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India [G.S.R. 371 (E), 17 May 2002]. The regulations impose type approval certification, production conformity testing and labeling requirements. Certification agencies include the Automotive Research Association of India and the Vehicle Research and Development Establishment. The emission standards are listed below.

Table 12 Emission Standards for Diesel Engines ≤ 800 kW for Generator Sets Engine Power (P) Date CO HC NOx PM Smoke
g/kWh 1/m
P ≤ 19 kW 2004.01 5.0 1.3 9.2 0.6 0.7
2005.07 3.5 1.3 9.2 0.3 0.7
19 kW < P ≤ 50 kW 2004.01 5.0 1.3 9.2 0.5 0.7
2004.07 3.5 1.3 9.2 0.3 0.7
50 kW < P ≤ 176 kW 2004.01 3.5 1.3 9.2 0.3 0.7
176 kW < P ≤ 800 kW 2004.11 3.5 1.3 9.2 0.3 0.7

Engines are tested over the 5-mode ISO 8178 D2 test cycle. Smoke opacity is measured at full load.

Table 13 Emission Limits for Diesel Engines > 800 kW for Generator Sets Date CO NMHC NOx PM
mg/Nm3 mg/Nm3 ppm(v) mg/Nm3
Until 2003.06 150 150 1100 75
2003.07 - 2005.06 150 100 970 75
2005.07 150 100 710 75

Concentrations are corrected to dry exhaust conditions with 15% residual O2.

Power plants
The emission standards for thermal power plants in India are being enforced based on Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 of Government of India and it’s amendments from time to time.[4] A summary of emission norms for coal and gas based thermal power plants is given in Tables 14 and 15

Table 14 Environmental standards for coal & gas based power plants Capacity
Emission limit

Coal based thermal plants

Below 210 MW
Particulate matter (PM)
350 mg/Nm3

210 MW & above

150 mg/Nm3

500 MW & above

50 mg/Nm3

Gas based thermal plants

400 MW & above
NOX(V/V at 15% excess oxygen)
50 PPM for natural gas; 100 PPM for naphtha

Below 400 MW & upto 100 MW

75 PPM for natural gas; 100 PPM for naphtha

Below 100 MW

100 PPM for naphtha/natural gas

For conventional boilers

100 PPM

Table 15 Stack height requirement for SO2 control Power Generation Capacity
Stock Height (Metre)

Less than 200/210 MWe
H = 14 (Q)0.3 where Q is emission

rate of SO 2 in kg/hr,

H = Stack height in metres
200/210 MWe or less than 500 MWe 200

500 MWe and above
275 (+ Space provision for FGD systems in future)

The norms for 500 MW and above coal based power plant being practised is 40 to 50 mg/Nm and space is provided in the plant layout for super thermal power stations for installation of flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) system. But FGD is not installed, as it is not required for low sulphur Indian coals while considering SO X emission from individual chimney.

In addition to the above emission standards, the selection of a site for a new power plant has to maintain the local ambient air quality as given in Table 16.

Table 16 Ambient air quality standard Category Conc. g/m3
Industrial and mixed-use

Residential and rural


Table 17 World bank norms for new projects Existing Air Quality Recommendation

SOX > 100 ? g/m3
No project

SOX = 100 ? g/m3
Polluted area, max. from a project 100 t/day

SOX < 50 ? g/m3
Unpolluted area, max. from a project 500 t/day

However the norms for SOX are even stricter for selection of sites for World Bank funded projects (refe r Table 2.4). For example, if SOX level is higher than 100 ? g/m 3, no project with further SOX emission can be set up; if SO X level is 100 ? g/m 3, it is called polluted area and maximum emission from a project should not exceed 100 t/day; and if SOX is less than 50 ? g/m 3, it is called unpolluted area, but the SOX emission from a project should not exceed 500 t/day. The stipulation for NOX emission is that it’s emission should not exceed 260 gram s of NOX per giga joule of heat input.

In view of the above, it may be seen that improved environment norms are linked to financing and are being enforced by international financial institutions and not by the policies/laws of land.

Fuel Quality plays a very important role in meeting the stringent emission regulation.

The fuel specifications of Gasoline and Diesel have been aligned with the Corresponding European Fuel Specifications for meeting the Euro II, Euro III and Euro IV emission norms.

The use of alternative fuels has been promoted in India both for energy security and emission reduction Delhi and Mumbai have more than 100,000 commercial vehicles running on CNG fuel. Delhi has the largest number of CNG commercial vehicles running any where in the World. India is planning to introduce Biodiesel, Ethanol Gasoline blends in a phased manner and has drawn up a road map for the same. The Indian auto Industry is working with the authorities to facilitate for introduction of the alternative fuels. India has also setup a task force for preparing the Hydrogen road map. The use of LPG has also been introduced as an auto fuel and the oil industry has drawn up plans for setting up of Auto LPG dispensing station in major cities.

Indian Gasoline specifications:

Table 18 Sl. No
Bharat Stage II
Bharat Stage III
Bharat Stage IV

Density 15 0 C


a) Recovery up to 70 0 C(E70)
b) Recovery up to 100 0 C (E100)

c) Recovery up to 180 0 C (E180)

d) Recovery up to 150 0 C (E150)

e) Final Boiling Point (FBP), Max

f) Residue Max





% Volume
















Research Octane Number (RON), Min

Anti Knock Index (AKI)/ MON, Min
84 (AKI)
81 (MON)
81 (MON)

Sulphur, Total , Max
% mass
150 mg/Kg

Lead Content(as Pb), Max

Reid Vapour Pressure (RVP), Max

Benzene, Content, Max

a) For Metros

b) For the rest
% Volume



Olefin content, Max
% Volume

Aromatic Content, Max
% Volume

Indian diesel specifications:

Table 19 S. No Characteristic BSII BSIII BSIV
1 Density Kg/m3 15 0 C 820-800 820-845 820-845
2 Sulphur Content mg/kg max 500 350 50

Cetane Number minimum and / or

Cetane Index

or 46

and 46

and 46

4 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon - 11 11




Reco. Min. At 350 0 C

Reco. Min. At 370 0C

95%Vol Reco at 0o C max










Table 20 Diesel Fuel Quality in India Date Particulars
1995 Cetane number: 45; Sulfur: 1%
1996 Sulfur: 0.5% (Delhi + selected cities)
1998 Sulfur: 0.25% (Delhi)
1999 Sulfur: 0.05% (Delhi, limited supply)
2000 Cetane number: 48; Sulfur: 0.25% (Nationwide)
2001 Sulfur: 0.05% (Delhi + selected cities)
2005 Sulfur: 350 ppm (Euro 3; selected areas)
2010 Sulfur: 350 ppm (Euro 3; nationwide)
2010 Sulfur: 50 ppm (Euro 4; selected areas)

Indian bio-diesel specifications:

Table 21 S.No. Characteristics Requirement Method of Test , ref to
Other Methods [P:] of IS 1448
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
i. Density at 15°C, kg/m3 860-900 ISO 3675 P:16/
ISO 12185 P:32
ii. Kinematic Viscosity at 40°C, cSt 2.5-6.0 ISO 3104 P:25
iii. Flash point (PMCC) °C, min 120 P:21
iv. Sulphur, mg/kg max. 50.0 ASTM D 5453 P:83
v Carbon residue (Ramsbottom) *,% by mass, max 0.05 ASTM D 4530ISO 10370 -
vi. Sulfated ash, % by mass, max 0.02 ISO 6245 P:4
vii. Water content, mg/kg, max 500 ASTM D 2709 P:40
ISO 3733
ISO 6296
viii Total contamination, mg/kg, max 24 EN 12662 -
ix Cu corrosion, 3 hrs at 50°C, max 1 ISO 2160 P:15
x Cetane No., min 51 ISO 5156 P:9
xi Acid value, mg KOH/g, max 0.50 - P:1 / Sec 1
xii Methanol @, % by mass, max 0.20 EN 14110 -
xiii Ethanol, @@ % by mass, max 0.20 -
xiv Ester content, % by mass, min 96.5 EN 14103 -
xv Free Glycerol, % by mass, max 0.02 ASTM D 6584 -
xvi Total Glycerol, % by mass, max 0.25 ASTM D 6584 -
xvii Phosphorous, mg/kg, max 10.0 ASTMD 4951 -
xviii Sodium & Potassium, mg/kg, max To report EN 14108 & -
EN 14109 -
xix Calcium and Magnesium, mg/kg, max To report ÷ -
xx Iodine value To report EN 14104 -
xxi Oxidation stability, at 110°C hrs, min 6 EN 14112 -
* Carbon residue shall be run on 100% sample
** European method is under development

@ Applicable for Fatty Acid Methyl Ester

@@ Applicable for Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester

Criticism and commentary
Ineffectiveness of present pollution control system
Presently, all vehicles need to undergo a periodic emission check (3 months/ 6 months) at PUC Centres at Fuel Stations and Private Garages which are authorised to check the vehicles. In addition, transport vehicles need to undergo an annual fitness check carried out by RTOs for emissions, safety and roadworthiness.[5]

The objective of reducing pollution not achieved to a large extent by the present system. Some reasons for this are: – Independent centres do not follow rigorous procedures due to inadequate training – Equipment not subjected to periodic calibration by independent authority – Lack of professionalism has led to malpractice – Tracking system of vehicles failing to meet norms non-existent

Comparison between Bharat Stage and Euro norms
The Bharat Stage norms have been styled to suit specific needs and demands of Indian conditions. The differences lie essentially in environmental and geographical needs, even though the emission standards are exactly the same.

For instance, Euro-III is tested at sub-zero temperatures in European countries. In India, where the average annual temperature ranges between 24 and 28 degree Celsius, the test is done away with.

Another major distinction is in the maximum speed at which the vehicle is tested. A speed of 90 kmph is stipulated for BS-III, whereas it is 120 kmph for Euro-III, keeping emission limits the same in both cases.

In addition to limits, test procedure has certain finer points too. For instance, the mass emission test measurements done in g/km on a chassis dynamometer requires a loading of 100 kg weight in addition to unloaded car weight in Europe. In India, BS-III norms require an extra loading of 150 kg weight to achieve the desired inertia weight mainly due to road conditions here. [6]

Non-existence of CO2 limits
Various groups and agencies have criticized the government and urged the government of India to draft mandatory fuel efficiency standards for cars in the country, or at least to make the CO2 emissions labelling mandatory on all new cars in the country. The auto companies should inform the customers about a vehicle’s emissions.[7]

Lag behind Euro standards
There has been criticism of the fact that the Indian norms lag the Euro norms. At present, this lag is around 5 years. Also, there was suggestion from some bodies to implement Euro IV norms after Euro II norms, skipping the Euro III norms totally. This is because the Euro III norms are only a small improvement over Euro II, whereas Euro IV norms mark a big leap over Euro II.

The justification cited for this lag is that enforcing tight norms too soon would drive up automobile prices, thereby stifling growth of the automotive industry in the country.

Cycle beating
For the emission standards to deliver real emission reductions it is crucial that the test cycles under which the emissions have to comply as much as possible reflect normal driving situations. It was discovered that engine manufacturers would engage in what was called 'cycle beating' to optimise emission performance to the test cycle, while emissions from typical driving conditions would be much higher than expected, undermining the standards and public health. In one particular instance, research from two German technology institutes found that for diesel cars no 'real' NOx reductions have been achieved after 13 years of stricter standards. [8]

Regulatory framework
In India the Rules and Regulations related to driving license, registration of motor vehicles, control of traffic, construction & maintenance of motor vehicles etc are governed by the Motor Vehicles Act 1988 (MVA) and the Central Motor Vehicles rules 1989 (CMVR). The Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport & Highways (MoSRT&H) acts as a nodal agency for formulation and implementation of various provisions of the Motor Vehicle Act and CMVR. [9]

In order to involve all stake holders in regulation formulation, MoSRT&H has constituted two Committees to deliberate and advise Ministry on issues relating to Safety and Emission Regulations, namely –

CMVR- Technical Standing Committee (CMVR-TSC)
Standing Committee on Implementation of Emission Legislation (SCOE)
[edit] CMVR- Technical Standing Committee (CMVR-TSC)
This Committee advises MoSRT&H on various technical aspects related to CMVR. This Committee has representatives from various organisations namely; Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises (MoHI&PE)), MoSRT&H, Bureau Indian Standards (BIS), Testing Agencies such as Automotive Research of India (ARAI), Vehicle Research Development & Establishment (VRDE), Central Institute of Road Transport (CIRT), industry representatives from Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM), Automotive Component Manufacturers Association (ACMA) and Tractor Manufacturers Association (TMA) and representatives from State Transport Departments. Major functions the Committee are:

To provide technical clarification and interpretation of the Central Motor Vehicles Rules having technical bearing, to MoRT&H, as and when so desired.
To recommend to the Government the International/ foreign standards which can be used in lieu of standard notified under the CMVR permit use of components/parts/assemblies complying with such standards.
To make recommendations on any other technical issues which have direct relevance in implementation of the Central Motor Vehicles Rules.
To make recommendations on the new safety standards of various components for notification and implementation under Central Motor Vehicles Rules.
To make recommendations on lead time for implementation of such safety standards.
To recommend amendment of Central Motor Vehicles Rules having technical bearing keeping in view of Changes in automobile technologies.
CMVR-TSC is assisted by another Committee called the Automobile Industry Standards Committee (AISC) having members from various stakeholders in drafting the technical standards related to Safety. The major functions of the committee are as follows:

Preparation of new standards for automotive items related to safety.
To review and recommend amendments to the existing standards.
Recommend adoption of such standards to CMVR Technical Standing Committee
Recommend commissioning of testing facilities at appropriate stages.
Recommend the necessary funding of such facilities to the CMVR Technical Standing Committee, and
Advise CMVR Technical Standing Committee on any other issues referred to it
The National Standards for Automotive Industry are prepared by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The standards formulated by AISC are also converted into Indian Standards by BIS. The standards formulated by both BIS and AISC are considered by CMVR-TSC for implementation.

Standing Committee on Implementation of Emission Legislation (SCOE)
This Committee deliberates the issues related to implementation of emission regulation. Major functions of this Committee are –

To discuss the future emission norms
To recommend norms for in-use vehicles to MoSRT&H
To finalise the test procedures and the implementation strategy for emission norms
Advise MoSRT&H on any issue relating to implementation of emission regulations.
Based on the recommendations from CMVR-TSC and SCOE, MoSRT&H issues notification for necessary amendments / modifications in the in Central Motor Vehicle Rules.

In addition, the other Ministries like Ministry of Environment & Forest (MoEF), Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas (MoPNG) and Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources are also involved in formulation of regulations relating to Emissions, Noise, Fuels and Alternative Fuel vehicles.


Thursday, January 7, 2010

Motorcycle Frame Sliders

A frame slider mounted to a Suzuki GSX-R750. Manufacturer: BS-Motoparts
Fork sliders (left), bar end sliders (center) and frame sliders (right) on a Ducati SportClassicFrame sliders, also called frame protectors, fairing protectors, or crash bobbins, are an accessory used on street motorcycles for the purpose of maintaining the bike's side fairings and internal components in the event of a crash, or preventing damage from dumping (dropping) the bike. The frame sliders are usually located and installed on the engine bolts on the left and right side fairings. The average frame sliders will run about 30 to 50 US Dollars.[citation needed]

Along the same lines, plastic, or other polymer, sliders are sometimes added to motorcycle bar ends, and to front or rear axles, called fork sliders and swingarm sliders. These provide some potential damage reduction for the suspension components, wheels, and other parts by making contact with the ground before the rest of the bike. Hard-mounted foot pegs, which do not fold upward as normal original equipment foot pegs do, can also serve as a buffer between the ground and the bike's frame and components.

Fork Slider

Frame Slider

Information :- Wikipedia.
Photos :- Internet.

Tuesday, January 5, 2010



This is a basic guide for proper camshaft selection. There are always exceptions, and lots of people ignore the guidelines, but if you stay close to them you will have a combination that works well.

Getting The Right Cam - Engine RPM Calculations - Basic Parts Selection Guide
Which Specs Are Better?

Accelerated Motion Home Page

Getting the camshaft that is right for YOU
The most important thing to remember when designing your engine is how it will be used most often. All of the components that you choose for your engine must match your primary use (and each other) or you will be disappointed with the results. This is especially true for internal engine parts such as pistons, heads, and cams. If you make a mistake choosing one of these items you will have a lot of expense and work ahead of you to make the corrections.
Over-camming the engine is the most common mistake made when choosing a cam. A big cam will not give better bottom end power and big horsepower numbers also won't happen at low rpms without big cubic inches or a supercharger.
Another common mistake is building a high compression engine and then choosing a Torque/City or RV/Commuter camshaft to match the type of driving the vehicle will be used for. Unfortunately this will produce cylinder pressures that are too high for pump gas to handle. This is the way to go only if you plan to run on propane (107 octane) or natural gas (130 octane).

So how DO you choose your camshaft?
First, you must decide how the vehicle is going to be used most often.
If you are using it daily to go back and forth to work, how much of that time is in city traffic? And how much of your traffic time is spent sitting in line at the light? These questions might seem unnecessary, but if you spend 25% of your time at idle and another 50% of your time in traffic between 0 and 50 KMH (30 MPH), this information becomes important. This would be the speed that determines the low end of your RPM range.
Next you will have to determine your usual cruising speed and/or top speed. If you have a tach it is easy to get your normal operating range by checking your engine speed as you drive. If you don't have a tach in your vehicle some calculations will be required to determine what RPM you are running at. For this you will need to know your Tire Outside Diameter (O.D.) and your Rear Axle Ratio. If you do not know your Rear Axle Ratio there is often a tag on one of the differential cover bolts that will tell you. Or you can find out the hard way:
Block the front wheels
If your vehicle doesn't have posi:
Raise one of your rear wheels off of the ground and properly support your vehicle
Put a chalk mark on the raised tire and on the driveshaft
With the transmission in neutral and the emergency brake off rotate the tire two full turns (to compensate for the action of the differential) while counting the number of times the drive shaft turns.
If your vehicle has posi:
Raise both of your rear wheels off of the ground and properly support your vehicle
Put a chalk mark on the same position of both tires and on the driveshaft
With the transmission in neutral and the emergency brake off rotate both tires in the same direction one full turn while counting the number of times the drive shaft turns.
Check to make sure the lines on the tires still match position. If they aren't in the same positions as at the start something is wrong.
The number of driveshaft turns is your Rear Axle Ratio. The common gear ratios are 3.08, 3.23, 3.55, 3.73, 3.91, 4.10, 4.56, and 4.88.
To get your correct tire diameter measure from the ground to the center of the wheel and multiply by 2. Measuring from any other point on the tire will give you a larger diameter than your vehicle actually uses.

Here are your Vehicle Speed To Engine RPM calculations

1 --- = KM per minute

2 KM per minute X 100,000 = cm per minute

cm per minute
3 --------------------------- = Tire RPM
(cm Tire X 3.1416)

4 Tire RPM X Rear Axle Ratio = Engine RPM


1 --- = Miles per minute

2 Miles per minute X 63,360 = inches per minute

inches per minute
3 ------------------------------ = Tire RPM
(inches Tire O.D. X 3.1416)

4 Tire RPM X Rear Axle Ratio = Engine RPM

Keeping your idle requirements in mind, work out the low end of your RPM range. For a vehicle that is driven daily in the city it will be your idle rpm. For a drag vehicle it will be the launch rpm. For an oval track vehicle it will be your rpm at re-start.
Now repeat the formula for your top speed. For a street vehicle the highway cruising speed (90 KMH or 60 MPH) will be the top of your torque range. For a drag vehicle peak horsepower and rpm will be at the fast end of the strip. For an oval track vehicle peak horsepower and rpm will be at the fast end of the straights.
Now you know what RPM range you require for your driving.
The optimum RPM range of a cam is really only about 3000 RPM from the beginning of the torque range to the end, with another 1000 rpm to peak horsepower. They will operate above and below this but not to the best performance. If you require an RPM range that is wider than this you will have to make a compromise. Which RPM range is the most important to you? For hydraulic lifter cams, Rhoads variable lifters will add about 1000 rpm to to lower end of the camshaft's normal operating range.

Basic Parts Selection Guide
This guide uses 8 typical performance levels from mild to wild. If you are not sure which range to use, be conservative. If you choose too high an rpm range it will be less reliable, harder on parts, and rarely be used. An rpm range that is lower than you need will still be used even if your top end is slightly limited.
Each performance level suggests the range of Accelerated Motion camshaft, air/fuel requirements, compression ratio, exhaust type, gear ratios, and ignition, that will work together the best for that performance level. Maximum engine HP (not including nitrous or supercharging) and expected idle speed are also shown.
The RPM range that a cam works best in will change with the engine size and head design. Recomendations shown in this guide are for average engines. See the web parts catalogue for more specific recomendations.

(idle to 3600 rpm, max. HP @ 4600 rpm)
Good fuel economy, light to medium towing and improved low-end for city use. No internal engine modifications are required.
151 4 cyl. up to 19477
181 4 cyl. up to 19767
189 6 cyl. up to 19393
250 6 cyl. up to 19686
300 6 cyl. up to 20220
302 V8 up to 19567
350 V8 up to 19827
400 V8 up to 19830
454 V8 up to 20190
500 V8 up to 20617
*The cam range refers to the 2nd half of the Accelerated Motion part number.
Compression: Gasoline 9.0:1 or less, Propane 10.5:1 or less
Exhaust: Stock or dual exhaust
Fuel Inj.: Should work with factory EFI computers
Gear Ratio: 3.7:1 and lower (numerically)
Idle: 600 rpm or less
Ignition: Recurved distributor and electronic ignition

(1000 rpm to 4000 rpm, max. HP @ 5000 rpm)
Good fuel economy, medium towing and improved mid-range performance for every day use. No internal engine modifications are required.
151 4 cyl. 19477 to 20277 222 to 278 cfm Max. 121 HP
181 4 cyl. 19767 to 20567 266 to 333 cfm Max. 145 HP
189 6 cyl. 19393 to 20193 278 to 348 cfm Max. 151 HP
250 6 cyl. 19686 to 20486 368 to 460 cfm Max. 200 HP
300 6 cyl. 20220 to 21020 442 to 552 cfm Max. 240 HP
302 V8 19567 to 20367 445 to 556 cfm Max. 242 HP
350 V8 19827 to 20627 515 to 644 cfm Max. 280 HP
400 V8 19830 to 20630 589 to 736 cfm Max. 320 HP
454 V8 20190 to 20990 668 to 836 cfm Max. 363 HP
500 V8 20617 to 21417 736 to 920 cfm Max. 400 HP
*The cam range refers to the 2nd half of the Accelerated Motion part number.
Compression: Gasoline 9.5:1 or less, Propane 11.0:1 or less
Exhaust: Stock, dual exhaust, or small tube headers
Fuel Inj.: Factory EFI computers might require modification
Gear Ratio: 3.9:1 or lower (numerically)
Idle: 650 rpm or less
Ignition: Recurved distributor and electronic ignition

(1400 rpm to 4400 rpm, max. HP @ 5400 rpm)
Fair idle, moderate fuel economy, improved mid-range performance and enough torque for medium/heavy towing. Nice for ski boat.
151 4 cyl. 20277 to 21077 250 to 309 cfm Max. 136 HP
181 4 cyl. 20567 to 21367 300 to 371 cfm Max. 163 HP
189 6 cyl. 20193 to 20993 313 to 387 cfm Max. 170 HP
250 6 cyl. 20486 to 21286 414 to 512 cfm Max. 225 HP
300 6 cyl. 21020 to 21820 497 to 615 cfm Max. 270 HP
302 V8 20367 to 21167 500 to 619 cfm Max. 272 HP
350 V8 20627 to 21427 579 to 717 cfm Max. 315 HP
400 V8 20630 to 21430 662 to 819 cfm Max. 360 HP
454 V8 20990 to 21790 752 to 930 cfm Max. 409 HP
500 V8 21417 to 22217 828 to 1024 cfm Max. 450 HP
*The cam range refers to the 2nd half of the Accelerated Motion part number.
Compression: Gasoline 8.5:1 to 10.0:1, Propane 10.0:1 to 11.5:1
Exhaust: Stock dual exhaust or small tube headers
Fuel Inj.: Factory EFI computers will require modification
Gear Ratio: 3.1:1 to 4.1:1
Idle: 700 rpm or less, slight lope
Ignition: Recurved distributor and electronic ignition

(1800 rpm to 4800 rpm, max. HP @ 5800 rpm)
Good upper mid-range performance. Works well for medium and heavy towing with low (high numerially) gears.
Good for jet boat and skiing. Biggest for I/O boat.
151 4 cyl. 21077 to 21877 279 to 341 cfm Max. 151 HP
181 4 cyl. 21367 to 22167 334 to 409 cfm Max. 181 HP
189 6 cyl. 20993 to 21793 349 to 427 cfm Max. 189 HP
250 6 cyl. 21286 to 22086 461 to 565 cfm Max. 250 HP
300 6 cyl. 21820 to 22620 554 to 678 cfm Max. 300 HP
302 V8 21167 to 21967 557 to 682 cfm Max. 302 HP
350 V8 21427 to 22227 646 to 791 cfm Max. 350 HP
400 V8 21430 to 22230 738 to 903 cfm Max. 400 HP
454 V8 21790 to 22590 838 to 1025 cfm Max. 454 HP
500 V8 22217 to 23017 923 to 1129 cfm Max. 500 HP
*The cam range refers to the 2nd half of the Accelerated Motion part number.
Compression: Gasoline 9.0:1 to 10.5:1, Propane 10.5:1 to 12.0:1
Exhaust: Dual exhaust, headers are recommended
Fuel Inj.: Performance EFI system recommended
Gear Ratio: 3.3:1 to 4.3:1
Idle: 750 rpm or less, small lope
Ignition: Recurved or perf. distributor, electronic ignition

(2200 rpm to 5200 rpm, max. HP @ 6200 rpm)
Strong upper rpm performance. Not for towing. Good in jet boat with A impeller. Biggest for skiing. Multi-angle valve grind is recommended.
151 4 cyl. 21877 to 22677 308 to 373 cfm Max. 166 HP
181 4 cyl. 22167 to 22967 369 to 447 cfm Max. 199 HP
189 6 cyl. 21793 to 22593 386 to 467 cfm Max. 208 HP
250 6 cyl. 22086 to 22886 510 to 617 cfm Max. 275 HP
300 6 cyl. 22620 to 23420 612 to 741 cfm Max. 330 HP
302 V8 21967 to 22767 616 to 746 cfm Max. 332 HP
350 V8 22227 to 23027 714 to 864 cfm Max. 385 HP
400 V8 22230 to 23030 816 to 988 cfm Max. 440 HP
454 V8 22590 to 23390 926 to 1121 cfm Max. 499 HP
500 V8 23017 to 23817 1020 to 1235 cfm Max. 550 HP
*The cam range refers to the 2nd half of the Accelerated Motion part number.
Compression: Gasoline 9.5:1 to 11.0:1, Propane 11.0:1 to 12.5:1
Exhaust: Dual exhaust with headers
Fuel Inj.: Performance EFI system required
Gear Ratio: 3.5:1 to 4.5:1
Idle: 800 rpm or less, has a lope
Ignition: Recurved or perf. distributor, electronic ignition

(2600 rpm to 5600 rpm, max. HP @ 6600 rpm)
Strong performance above 2500 rpm. Expect low manifold vacuum. Mild port work and multi-angle valve grind are recommended. Automatic transmissions may require a high stall torque converter.
151 4 cyl. 22677 to 23477 338 to 405 cfm Max. 181 HP
181 4 cyl. 22967 to 23767 406 to 485 cfm Max. 217 HP
189 6 cyl. 22593 to 23393 423 to 507 cfm Max. 227 HP
250 6 cyl. 22886 to 23686 560 to 670 cfm Max. 300 HP
300 6 cyl. 23420 to 24220 672 to 804 cfm Max. 360 HP
302 V8 22767 to 23567 677 to 810 cfm Max. 362 HP
350 V8 23027 to 23827 784 to 938 cfm Max. 420 HP
400 V8 23030 to 23830 896 to 1072 cfm Max. 480 HP
454 V8 23390 to 24190 1017 to 1217 cfm Max. 545 HP
500 V8 23817 to 24617 1120 to 1340 cfm Max. 600 HP
*The cam range refers to the 2nd half of the Accelerated Motion part number.
Compression: Gasoline 10.0:1 to 11.5:1, Propane 11.5:1 to 13.0:1
Exhaust: Dual exhaust with headers
Fuel Inj.: Performance EFI system required
Gear Ratio: 3.7:1 to 4.7:1
Idle: 850 or less, has a lope
Ignition: Performance distributor and electronic ignition

(3000 rpm and up)
Super top-end performance. Manifold vacuum might be too low for power brakes and automatic transmission modulators. NOT for daily driving. Mild port work and multi-angle valve grind are recommended. Automatic transmissions will require a high stall torque converter.
151 4 cyl. 23477 and up 369 cfm and up 181 HP and up
181 4 cyl. 23767 and up 443 cfm and up 217 HP and up
189 6 cyl. 23393 and up 462 cfm and up 227 HP and up
250 6 cyl. 23686 and up 611 cfm and up 300 HP and up
300 6 cyl. 24220 and up 734 cfm and up 360 HP and up
302 V8 23567 and up 738 cfm and up 362 HP and up
350 V8 23827 and up 856 cfm and up 420 HP and up
400 V8 22830 and up 978 cfm and up 480 HP and up
454 V8 24190 and up 1110 cfm and up 545 HP and up
500 V8 24617 and up 1223 cfm and up 600 HP and up
*The cam range refers to the 2nd half of the Accelerated Motion part number.
Compression: Gasoline 10.5:1 and up, Propane 12.0:1 and up
Exhaust: Dual exhaust with headers
Fuel Inj.: Race EFI system required
Gear Ratio: 3.9:1 and higher (numerically)
Idle: 850 rpm or more, will be rough
Ignition: Performance distributor and electronic ignition

Minimum chassis horsepower required to reach a 1/4 mile speed:
HPq = (0.00426 x MPH) x (0.00426 x MPH) x (0.00426 x MPH) x WEIGHT

What makes one cam in the range better than another?
There are many myths and legends about which cam is better, single pattern (intake and exhaust the same) or dual pattern (intake and exhaust different). The fact is that unless your exhaust ports are very restricted there is no way to tell. On the dyno you would always be comparing apples to oranges.

Lobe Center Separation is as big a consideration as duration. Lobe center separation plays a role in determining how much valve overlap (the amount of time the intake and exhaust valves are both open) your engine will have and what your vacuum and idle quality will be. Street cams with wide lobe center separation (114) generally will have a good idle, high vacuum, and a nice wide RPM range. Separations closer to 108 (less separation means more valve overlap) can create problems for some computer engine controls due to their rougher idle and lower manifold vacuum. They have a shorter RPM range but produce much stronger mid-range power with some improvement to the top end.

Now we get to valve lift. Many customers believe that the cam with the highest lift will perform much better than a moderate lift cam. While it is true that a high lift cam will provide better flow by getting the valve further out of the way, there are limits to this as well as other considerations.
The high rate of lift required to achieve high lift on a short duration cam is very hard on the valve train and causes valve to piston interference problems (especially with narrow lobe separations). High lift also causes several other problems including valve spring retainer to valve guide/seal interference, rocker arm to stud interference, and valve spring coil bind. Adjustable rocker arms are often required to take up any clearance created in the valve train when the valve is closed. All of this must be checked and corrected before a high lift cam can operate properly.
If you are using a cam with enough duration to make a high lift effective, the usual limit for noticable improvement is reached when the lift equals 25% of the valve diameter. This means that if your valve diameter is only 1.84 you will get the best flow at only .460 lift. Lifts higher than 25% of the valve diameter will add more duration at the maximum flow point but excessive lifts will cause more problems than they are worth in an engine that is not fully race prepared.
The bottom line on cam lift is that it is pointless to go overboard. All newer designs have adequate lift for the operating range of the cam. The minimal gains from an extra high lift cam are not worth the extra work in a street vehicle.
Here are some basics for choosing a cam from your range:
Large cars: Use short or medium duration, exhaust can be longer. Wide lobe seperation is better.
Small Cars: Use long intake duration, exhaust can be longer. Lobe center seperation can be short.
Propane and Natural Gas: Use short or medium duration single pattern. Wide lobe seperation is required.
Trucks: Use short duration. Wide lobe seperation is better.
Nitrous or Supercharger: Use long duration. Wide lobe seperation is required. Supercharger compression must be lower than shown in the guide.
Turbos: Use short or medium duration, exhaust can be shorter. Wide lobe seperation is required. Compression for turbos must be lower than shown in the guide.

Burnaby, B.C. Canada
(Above info is not related to any Indian cars...So please take it as a knowledge.)