Wednesday, January 20, 2010

Bharat Stage Emission Standards

Background
The first Indian emission regulations were idle emission limits which became effective in 1989. These idle emission regulations were soon replaced by mass emission limits for both petrol (1991) and diesel (1992) vehicles, which were gradually tightened during the 1990’s. Since the year 2000, India started adopting European emission and fuel regulations for four-wheeled light-duty and for heavy-dc. Indian own emission regulations still apply to two- and three-wheeled vehicles.

Current requirement is that all transport vehicles carry a fitness certificate that is renewed each year after the first two years of new vehicle registration.

On October 6, 2003, the National Auto Fuel Policy has been announced, which envisages a phased program for introducing Euro 2 - 4 emission and fuel regulations by 2010. The implementation schedule of EU emission standards in India is summarized in Table 1.[1]

Table 1: Indian Emission Standards (4-Wheel Vehicles) Standard Reference Date Region
India 2000 Euro 1 2000 Nationwide
Bharat Stage II Euro 2 2001 NCR*, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai
2003.04 NCR*, 10 Cities†
2005.04 Nationwide
Bharat Stage III Euro 3 2005.04 NCR*, 10 Cities†
2010.04 Nationwide
Bharat Stage IV Euro 4 2010.04 NCR*, 10 Cities†
* National Capital Region (Delhi)
† Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur and Agra


The above standards apply to all new 4-wheel vehicles sold and registered in the respective regions. In addition, the National Auto Fuel Policy introduces certain emission requirements for interstate buses with routes originating or terminating in Delhi or the other 10 cities.

For 2-and 3-wheelers, Bharat Stage II (Euro 2) will be applicable from April 1, 2005 and Stage III (Euro 3) standards would come in force from April 1, 2010.[2]

Trucks and buses

Exhaust gases from vehicles form a significant portion of air pollution which is harmful to human health and the environmentEmission standards for new heavy-duty diesel engines—applicable to vehicles of GVW > 3,500 kg—are listed in Table 2.

Table 2 Emission Standards for Diesel Truck and Bus Engines, g/kWh Year Reference Test CO HC NOx PM
1992 - ECE R49 17.3-32.6 2.7-3.7 - -
1996 - ECE R49 11.20 2.40 14.4 -
2000 Euro I ECE R49 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36*
2005† Euro II ECE R49 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15
2010† Euro III ESC 2.1 0.66 5.0 0.10
ETC 5.45 0.78 5.0 0.16
2010‡ Euro IV ESC 1.5 0.46 3.5 0.02
ETC 4.0 0.55 3.5 0.03
* 0.612 for engines below 85 kW
† earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1 ‡ only in selected regions, see Table 1


More details on Euro I-III regulations can be found in the EU heavy-duty engine standards page.

Light duty diesel vehicles
Emission standards for light-duty diesel vehicles (GVW ≤ 3,500 kg) are summarized in Table 3. Ranges of emission limits refer to different classes (by reference mass) of light commercial vehicles; compare the EU light-duty vehicle emission standards page for details on the Euro 1 and later standards. The lowest limit in each range applies to passenger cars (GVW ≤ 2,500 kg; up to 6 seats).

Table 3 Emission Standards for Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles, g/km Year Reference CO HC HC+NOx NOx PM
1992 - 17.3-32.6 2.7-3.7 - - -
1996 - 5.0-9.0 - 2.0-4.0 - -
2000 Euro 1 2.72-6.90 - 0.97-1.70 0.14-0.25 -
2005† Euro 2 1.0-1.5 - 0.7-1.2 0.08-0.17 -
2010† Euro 3 0.64
0.80
0.95 - 0.56
0.72
0.86 0.50
0.65
0.78 0.05
0.07
0.10
2010‡ Euro 4 0.50
0.63
0.74 - 0.30
0.39
0.46 0.25
0.33
0.39 0.025
0.04
0.06
† earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1
‡ only in selected regions, see Table 1


The test cycle has been the ECE + EUDC for low power vehicles (with maximum speed limited to 90 km/h). Before 2000, emissions were measured over an Indian test cycle.

Engines for use in light-duty vehicles can be also emission tested using an engine dynamometer. The respective emission standards are listed in Table 4.

Table 4 Emission Standards for Light-Duty Diesel Engines, g/kWh Year Reference CO HC NOx PM
1992 - 14.0 3.5 18.0 -
1996 - 11.20 2.40 14.4 -
2000 Euro I 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36*
2005† Euro II 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15
* 0.612 for engines below 85 kW
† earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1


Light duty gasoline vehicles
4-wheel vehicles
Emissions standards for gasoline vehicles (GVW ≤ 3,500 kg) are summarized in Table 5. Ranges of emission limits refer to different classes of light commercial vehicles (compare the EU light-duty vehicle emission standards page). The lowest limit in each range applies to passenger cars (GVW ≤ 2,500 kg; up to 6 seats).

Table 5 Emission Standards for Gasoline Vehicles (GVW ≤ 3,500 kg), g/km Year Reference CO HC HC+NOx NOx
1991 - 14.3-27.1 2.0-2.9 -
1996 - 8.68-12.4 - 3.00-4.36
1998* - 4.34-6.20 - 1.50-2.18
2000 Euro 1 2.72-6.90 - 0.97-1.70
2005† Euro 2 2.2-5.0 - 0.5-0.7
2010† Euro 3 2.3
4.17
5.22 0.20
0.25
0.29 - 0.15
0.18
0.21
2010‡ Euro 4 1.0
1.81
2.27 0.1
0.13
0.16 - 0.08
0.10
0.11
* for catalytic converter fitted vehicles

† earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1 ‡ only in selected regions, see Table 1


Gasoline vehicles must also meet an evaporative (SHED) limit of 2 g/test (effective 2000).

3- and 2-wheel vehicles
Emission standards for 3- and 2-wheel gasoline vehicles are listed in the following tables.[3]

Table 6 Emission Standards for 3-Wheel Gasoline Vehicles, g/km Year CO HC HC+NOx
1991 12-30 8-12 -
1996 6.75 - 5.40
2000 4.00 - 2.00
2005 (BS II) 2.25 - 2.00
2010.04 (BS III) 1.25 - 1.25
Table 7 Emission Standards for 2-Wheel Gasoline Vehicles, g/km Year CO HC HC+NOx
1991 12-30 8-12 -
1996 5.50 - 3.60
2000 2.00 - 2.00
2005 (BS II) 1.5 - 1.5
2010.04 (BS III) 1.0 - 1.0
Table 8 Emission Standards for 2- And 3-Wheel Diesel Vehicles, g/km Year CO HC+NOx PM
2005.04 1.00 0.85 0.10
2010.04 0.50 0.50 0.05

Overview of the emission norms in India
1991 - Idle CO Limits for Gasoline Vehicles and Free Acceleration Smoke for Diesel Vehicles, Mass Emission Norms for Gasoline Vehicles.
1992 - Mass Emission Norms for Diesel Vehicles.
1996 - Revision of Mass Emission Norms for Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles, mandatory fitment of Catalytic Converter for Cars in Metros on Unleaded Gasoline.
1998 - Cold Start Norms Introduced.
2000 - India 2000 (Eq. to Euro I) Norms, Modified IDC (Indian Driving Cycle), Bharat Stage II Norms for Delhi.
2001 - Bharat Stage II (Eq. to Euro II) Norms for All Metros, Emission Norms for CNG & LPG Vehicles.
2003 - Bharat Stage II (Eq. to Euro II) Norms for 11 major cities.
2005 - From 1 April Bharat Stage III (Eq. to Euro III) Norms for 11 major cities.
2010 - Bharat Stage III Emission Norms for 4-wheelers for entire country whereas Bharat Stage - IV (Eq. to Euro IV) for 11 major cities. Bharat Stage IV also has norms on OBD (simalar to Euro III but diluted)

CO2 emission
India’s auto sector accounts for about 18 per cent of the total CO2 emissions in the country. Relative CO2 emissions from transport have risen rapidly in recent years, but like the EU, currently there are no standards for CO2 emission limits for pollution from vehicles.

Obligatory labeling
There is also no provision to make the CO2 emissions labeling mandatory on cars in the country. A system exists in the EU to ensure that information relating to the fuel economy and CO2 emissions of new passenger cars offered for sale or lease in the Community is made available to consumers in order to enable consumers to make an informed choice.

Non road diesel engines
Construction machinery
Emission standards for diesel construction machinery were adopted on 21 September 2006. The standards are structured into two tiers:

Bharat (CEV) Stage II—These standards are based on the EU Stage I requirements, but also cover smaller engines that were not regulated under the EU Stage I.
Bharat (CEV) Stage III—These standards are based on US Tier 2/3 requirements.
The standards are summarized in the following table:

Table 9 Bharat (CEV) Emission Standards for Diesel Construction Machinery Engine Power Date CO HC HC+NOx NOx PM
kW g/kWh
Bharat (CEV) Stage II
P < 8 2008.10 8.0 1.3 - 9.2 1.00
8 ≤ P < 19 2008.10 6.6 1.3 - 9.2 0.85
19 ≤ P < 37 2007.10 6.5 1.3 - 9.2 0.85
37 ≤ P < 75 2007.10 6.5 1.3 - 9.2 0.85
75 ≤ P < 130 2007.10 5.0 1.3 - 9.2 0.70
130 ≤ P < 560 2007.10 5.0 1.3 - 9.2 0.54
Bharat (CEV) Stage III
P < 8 2011.04 8.0 - 7.5 - 0.80
8 ≤ P < 19 2011.04 6.6 - 7.5 - 0.80
19 ≤ P < 37 2011.04 5.5 - 7.5 - 0.60
37 ≤ P < 75 2011.04 5.0 - 4.7 - 0.40
75 ≤ P < 130 2011.04 5.0 - 4.0 - 0.30
130 ≤ P < 560 2011.04 3.5 - 4.0 - 0.20

The limit values apply for both type approval (TA) and conformity of production (COP) testing. Testing is performed on an engine dynamometer over the ISO 8178 C1 (8-mode) and D2 (5-mode) test cycles. The Bharat Stage III standards must be met over the useful life periods shown in Table 10. Alternatively, manufacturers may use fixed emission deterioration factors of 1.1 for CO, 1.05 for HC, 1.05 for NOx, and 1.1 for PM.

Table 10 Bharat (CEV) Stage III Useful Life Periods Power Rating Useful Life Period
hours
< 19 kW 3000
19-37 kW constant speed 3000
variable speed 5000
> 37 kW 8000

Agricultural tractors
Emission standards for diesel agricultural tractors are summarized in Table 11.

Table 11 Indian Emission Standards (4-Wheel Vehicles) Standard Reference Date Region
India 2000 Euro 1 2000 Nationwide
Bharat Stage II Euro 2 2001 NCR*, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai
2003.04 NCR*, 11 Cities†
2005.04 Nationwide
Bharat Stage III Euro 3 2005.04 NCR*, 11 Cities†
2010.04 Nationwide
Bharat Stage IV Euro 4 2010.04 NCR*, 11 Cities†
* National Capital Region (Delhi)

† Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Secunderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur and Agra


Emissions are tested over the ISO 8178 C1 (8-mode) cycle. For Bharat (Trem) Stage III A, the useful life periods and deterioration factors are the same as for Bharat (CEV) Stage III, Table 10.

Electricity generation
Generator sets
Emissions from new diesel engines used in generator sets have been regulated by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India [G.S.R. 371 (E), 17 May 2002]. The regulations impose type approval certification, production conformity testing and labeling requirements. Certification agencies include the Automotive Research Association of India and the Vehicle Research and Development Establishment. The emission standards are listed below.

Table 12 Emission Standards for Diesel Engines ≤ 800 kW for Generator Sets Engine Power (P) Date CO HC NOx PM Smoke
g/kWh 1/m
P ≤ 19 kW 2004.01 5.0 1.3 9.2 0.6 0.7
2005.07 3.5 1.3 9.2 0.3 0.7
19 kW < P ≤ 50 kW 2004.01 5.0 1.3 9.2 0.5 0.7
2004.07 3.5 1.3 9.2 0.3 0.7
50 kW < P ≤ 176 kW 2004.01 3.5 1.3 9.2 0.3 0.7
176 kW < P ≤ 800 kW 2004.11 3.5 1.3 9.2 0.3 0.7

Engines are tested over the 5-mode ISO 8178 D2 test cycle. Smoke opacity is measured at full load.

Table 13 Emission Limits for Diesel Engines > 800 kW for Generator Sets Date CO NMHC NOx PM
mg/Nm3 mg/Nm3 ppm(v) mg/Nm3
Until 2003.06 150 150 1100 75
2003.07 - 2005.06 150 100 970 75
2005.07 150 100 710 75

Concentrations are corrected to dry exhaust conditions with 15% residual O2.

Power plants
The emission standards for thermal power plants in India are being enforced based on Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 of Government of India and it’s amendments from time to time.[4] A summary of emission norms for coal and gas based thermal power plants is given in Tables 14 and 15

Table 14 Environmental standards for coal & gas based power plants Capacity
Pollutant
Emission limit

Coal based thermal plants

Below 210 MW
Particulate matter (PM)
350 mg/Nm3

210 MW & above

150 mg/Nm3

500 MW & above

50 mg/Nm3

Gas based thermal plants

400 MW & above
NOX(V/V at 15% excess oxygen)
50 PPM for natural gas; 100 PPM for naphtha

Below 400 MW & upto 100 MW

75 PPM for natural gas; 100 PPM for naphtha

Below 100 MW

100 PPM for naphtha/natural gas

For conventional boilers

100 PPM

Table 15 Stack height requirement for SO2 control Power Generation Capacity
Stock Height (Metre)

Less than 200/210 MWe
H = 14 (Q)0.3 where Q is emission

rate of SO 2 in kg/hr,


H = Stack height in metres
200/210 MWe or less than 500 MWe 200
200

500 MWe and above
275 (+ Space provision for FGD systems in future)


The norms for 500 MW and above coal based power plant being practised is 40 to 50 mg/Nm and space is provided in the plant layout for super thermal power stations for installation of flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) system. But FGD is not installed, as it is not required for low sulphur Indian coals while considering SO X emission from individual chimney.

In addition to the above emission standards, the selection of a site for a new power plant has to maintain the local ambient air quality as given in Table 16.

Table 16 Ambient air quality standard Category Conc. g/m3
SPM SO2 CO NOX
Industrial and mixed-use
500
120
5000
120

Residential and rural
200
80
2000
80

Sensitive
100
30
1000
30

Table 17 World bank norms for new projects Existing Air Quality Recommendation

SOX > 100 ? g/m3
No project

SOX = 100 ? g/m3
Polluted area, max. from a project 100 t/day

SOX < 50 ? g/m3
Unpolluted area, max. from a project 500 t/day


However the norms for SOX are even stricter for selection of sites for World Bank funded projects (refe r Table 2.4). For example, if SOX level is higher than 100 ? g/m 3, no project with further SOX emission can be set up; if SO X level is 100 ? g/m 3, it is called polluted area and maximum emission from a project should not exceed 100 t/day; and if SOX is less than 50 ? g/m 3, it is called unpolluted area, but the SOX emission from a project should not exceed 500 t/day. The stipulation for NOX emission is that it’s emission should not exceed 260 gram s of NOX per giga joule of heat input.

In view of the above, it may be seen that improved environment norms are linked to financing and are being enforced by international financial institutions and not by the policies/laws of land.

Fuels
Fuel Quality plays a very important role in meeting the stringent emission regulation.

The fuel specifications of Gasoline and Diesel have been aligned with the Corresponding European Fuel Specifications for meeting the Euro II, Euro III and Euro IV emission norms.

The use of alternative fuels has been promoted in India both for energy security and emission reduction Delhi and Mumbai have more than 100,000 commercial vehicles running on CNG fuel. Delhi has the largest number of CNG commercial vehicles running any where in the World. India is planning to introduce Biodiesel, Ethanol Gasoline blends in a phased manner and has drawn up a road map for the same. The Indian auto Industry is working with the authorities to facilitate for introduction of the alternative fuels. India has also setup a task force for preparing the Hydrogen road map. The use of LPG has also been introduced as an auto fuel and the oil industry has drawn up plans for setting up of Auto LPG dispensing station in major cities.

Indian Gasoline specifications:

Table 18 Sl. No
Characteristics
Unit
Bharat Stage II
Bharat Stage III
Bharat Stage IV

1
Density 15 0 C
Kg/m3
710-770
720-775
720-775

2
Distillation

3
a) Recovery up to 70 0 C(E70)
b) Recovery up to 100 0 C (E100)

c) Recovery up to 180 0 C (E180)

d) Recovery up to 150 0 C (E150)

e) Final Boiling Point (FBP), Max

f) Residue Max
%Volume

%Volume

%Volume

%Volume

0C

% Volume
10-45

40-70

90

-

210

2
10-45

40-70

-

75min

210

2
10-45

40-70

-

75min

210

2

4
Research Octane Number (RON), Min
88
91
91

5
Anti Knock Index (AKI)/ MON, Min
84 (AKI)
81 (MON)
81 (MON)

6
Sulphur, Total , Max
% mass
0.05
150 mg/Kg
50mg/Kg

7
Lead Content(as Pb), Max
g/l
0.013
0.005
0.005

8
Reid Vapour Pressure (RVP), Max
Kpa
35-60
60
60

9
Benzene, Content, Max

a) For Metros

b) For the rest
% Volume
-

3

5
1
1

10
Olefin content, Max
% Volume
-
21
21

11
Aromatic Content, Max
% Volume
-
42
35


Indian diesel specifications:

Table 19 S. No Characteristic BSII BSIII BSIV
1 Density Kg/m3 15 0 C 820-800 820-845 820-845
2 Sulphur Content mg/kg max 500 350 50
3(a)

3(b)
Cetane Number minimum and / or

Cetane Index
48

or 46
51

and 46
51

and 46

4 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon - 11 11
5

(a)

(b)

(c)
Distillation

Reco. Min. At 350 0 C

Reco. Min. At 370 0C

95%Vol Reco at 0o C max


85

95

-


-

-

360


-

-

360

Table 20 Diesel Fuel Quality in India Date Particulars
1995 Cetane number: 45; Sulfur: 1%
1996 Sulfur: 0.5% (Delhi + selected cities)
1998 Sulfur: 0.25% (Delhi)
1999 Sulfur: 0.05% (Delhi, limited supply)
2000 Cetane number: 48; Sulfur: 0.25% (Nationwide)
2001 Sulfur: 0.05% (Delhi + selected cities)
2005 Sulfur: 350 ppm (Euro 3; selected areas)
2010 Sulfur: 350 ppm (Euro 3; nationwide)
2010 Sulfur: 50 ppm (Euro 4; selected areas)

Indian bio-diesel specifications:

Table 21 S.No. Characteristics Requirement Method of Test , ref to
Other Methods [P:] of IS 1448
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
i. Density at 15°C, kg/m3 860-900 ISO 3675 P:16/
ISO 12185 P:32
ASTM
ii. Kinematic Viscosity at 40°C, cSt 2.5-6.0 ISO 3104 P:25
iii. Flash point (PMCC) °C, min 120 P:21
iv. Sulphur, mg/kg max. 50.0 ASTM D 5453 P:83
v Carbon residue (Ramsbottom) *,% by mass, max 0.05 ASTM D 4530ISO 10370 -
vi. Sulfated ash, % by mass, max 0.02 ISO 6245 P:4
vii. Water content, mg/kg, max 500 ASTM D 2709 P:40
ISO 3733
ISO 6296
viii Total contamination, mg/kg, max 24 EN 12662 -
ix Cu corrosion, 3 hrs at 50°C, max 1 ISO 2160 P:15
x Cetane No., min 51 ISO 5156 P:9
xi Acid value, mg KOH/g, max 0.50 - P:1 / Sec 1
xii Methanol @, % by mass, max 0.20 EN 14110 -
xiii Ethanol, @@ % by mass, max 0.20 -
xiv Ester content, % by mass, min 96.5 EN 14103 -
xv Free Glycerol, % by mass, max 0.02 ASTM D 6584 -
xvi Total Glycerol, % by mass, max 0.25 ASTM D 6584 -
xvii Phosphorous, mg/kg, max 10.0 ASTMD 4951 -
xviii Sodium & Potassium, mg/kg, max To report EN 14108 & -
EN 14109 -
xix Calcium and Magnesium, mg/kg, max To report ÷ -
xx Iodine value To report EN 14104 -
xxi Oxidation stability, at 110°C hrs, min 6 EN 14112 -
* Carbon residue shall be run on 100% sample
** European method is under development

@ Applicable for Fatty Acid Methyl Ester

@@ Applicable for Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester

Criticism and commentary
Ineffectiveness of present pollution control system
Presently, all vehicles need to undergo a periodic emission check (3 months/ 6 months) at PUC Centres at Fuel Stations and Private Garages which are authorised to check the vehicles. In addition, transport vehicles need to undergo an annual fitness check carried out by RTOs for emissions, safety and roadworthiness.[5]

The objective of reducing pollution not achieved to a large extent by the present system. Some reasons for this are: – Independent centres do not follow rigorous procedures due to inadequate training – Equipment not subjected to periodic calibration by independent authority – Lack of professionalism has led to malpractice – Tracking system of vehicles failing to meet norms non-existent

Comparison between Bharat Stage and Euro norms
The Bharat Stage norms have been styled to suit specific needs and demands of Indian conditions. The differences lie essentially in environmental and geographical needs, even though the emission standards are exactly the same.

For instance, Euro-III is tested at sub-zero temperatures in European countries. In India, where the average annual temperature ranges between 24 and 28 degree Celsius, the test is done away with.

Another major distinction is in the maximum speed at which the vehicle is tested. A speed of 90 kmph is stipulated for BS-III, whereas it is 120 kmph for Euro-III, keeping emission limits the same in both cases.

In addition to limits, test procedure has certain finer points too. For instance, the mass emission test measurements done in g/km on a chassis dynamometer requires a loading of 100 kg weight in addition to unloaded car weight in Europe. In India, BS-III norms require an extra loading of 150 kg weight to achieve the desired inertia weight mainly due to road conditions here. [6]

Non-existence of CO2 limits
Various groups and agencies have criticized the government and urged the government of India to draft mandatory fuel efficiency standards for cars in the country, or at least to make the CO2 emissions labelling mandatory on all new cars in the country. The auto companies should inform the customers about a vehicle’s emissions.[7]

Lag behind Euro standards
There has been criticism of the fact that the Indian norms lag the Euro norms. At present, this lag is around 5 years. Also, there was suggestion from some bodies to implement Euro IV norms after Euro II norms, skipping the Euro III norms totally. This is because the Euro III norms are only a small improvement over Euro II, whereas Euro IV norms mark a big leap over Euro II.

The justification cited for this lag is that enforcing tight norms too soon would drive up automobile prices, thereby stifling growth of the automotive industry in the country.

Cycle beating
For the emission standards to deliver real emission reductions it is crucial that the test cycles under which the emissions have to comply as much as possible reflect normal driving situations. It was discovered that engine manufacturers would engage in what was called 'cycle beating' to optimise emission performance to the test cycle, while emissions from typical driving conditions would be much higher than expected, undermining the standards and public health. In one particular instance, research from two German technology institutes found that for diesel cars no 'real' NOx reductions have been achieved after 13 years of stricter standards. [8]

Regulatory framework
In India the Rules and Regulations related to driving license, registration of motor vehicles, control of traffic, construction & maintenance of motor vehicles etc are governed by the Motor Vehicles Act 1988 (MVA) and the Central Motor Vehicles rules 1989 (CMVR). The Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport & Highways (MoSRT&H) acts as a nodal agency for formulation and implementation of various provisions of the Motor Vehicle Act and CMVR. [9]

In order to involve all stake holders in regulation formulation, MoSRT&H has constituted two Committees to deliberate and advise Ministry on issues relating to Safety and Emission Regulations, namely –

CMVR- Technical Standing Committee (CMVR-TSC)
Standing Committee on Implementation of Emission Legislation (SCOE)
[edit] CMVR- Technical Standing Committee (CMVR-TSC)
This Committee advises MoSRT&H on various technical aspects related to CMVR. This Committee has representatives from various organisations namely; Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises (MoHI&PE)), MoSRT&H, Bureau Indian Standards (BIS), Testing Agencies such as Automotive Research of India (ARAI), Vehicle Research Development & Establishment (VRDE), Central Institute of Road Transport (CIRT), industry representatives from Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM), Automotive Component Manufacturers Association (ACMA) and Tractor Manufacturers Association (TMA) and representatives from State Transport Departments. Major functions the Committee are:

To provide technical clarification and interpretation of the Central Motor Vehicles Rules having technical bearing, to MoRT&H, as and when so desired.
To recommend to the Government the International/ foreign standards which can be used in lieu of standard notified under the CMVR permit use of components/parts/assemblies complying with such standards.
To make recommendations on any other technical issues which have direct relevance in implementation of the Central Motor Vehicles Rules.
To make recommendations on the new safety standards of various components for notification and implementation under Central Motor Vehicles Rules.
To make recommendations on lead time for implementation of such safety standards.
To recommend amendment of Central Motor Vehicles Rules having technical bearing keeping in view of Changes in automobile technologies.
CMVR-TSC is assisted by another Committee called the Automobile Industry Standards Committee (AISC) having members from various stakeholders in drafting the technical standards related to Safety. The major functions of the committee are as follows:

Preparation of new standards for automotive items related to safety.
To review and recommend amendments to the existing standards.
Recommend adoption of such standards to CMVR Technical Standing Committee
Recommend commissioning of testing facilities at appropriate stages.
Recommend the necessary funding of such facilities to the CMVR Technical Standing Committee, and
Advise CMVR Technical Standing Committee on any other issues referred to it
The National Standards for Automotive Industry are prepared by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The standards formulated by AISC are also converted into Indian Standards by BIS. The standards formulated by both BIS and AISC are considered by CMVR-TSC for implementation.

Standing Committee on Implementation of Emission Legislation (SCOE)
This Committee deliberates the issues related to implementation of emission regulation. Major functions of this Committee are –

To discuss the future emission norms
To recommend norms for in-use vehicles to MoSRT&H
To finalise the test procedures and the implementation strategy for emission norms
Advise MoSRT&H on any issue relating to implementation of emission regulations.
Based on the recommendations from CMVR-TSC and SCOE, MoSRT&H issues notification for necessary amendments / modifications in the in Central Motor Vehicle Rules.

In addition, the other Ministries like Ministry of Environment & Forest (MoEF), Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas (MoPNG) and Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources are also involved in formulation of regulations relating to Emissions, Noise, Fuels and Alternative Fuel vehicles.

Courtesy:- http://en.wikipedia.org