Tuesday, June 24, 2014

Yamaha R25

Thursday, June 19, 2014


launched twowheelhotwheel@gmail.com .....Online two wheel consultation(under 6 months subscription basis) . Solve your numerous two wheeler problems by sending pics/ video / mails. For a start -RE only.

WOW!!!!! now this is something new for riders.....good good...whoever started this...god bless him/her now subscribers can get help.....payment is not an issue but solution is important...good good

Saturday, June 14, 2014

Absorbent Glass Mat (AGM)

AGM technology became popular in the early 1980s as a sealed lead acid battery for military aircraft, vehicles and UPS to reduce weight and improve reliability. The acid is absorbed by a very fine fiberglass mat, making the battery spill-proof. This enables shipment without hazardous material restrictions. The plates can be made flat to resemble a standard flooded lead acid pack in a rectangular case; they can also be wound into a cylindrical cell.
AGM has very low internal resistance, is capable to deliver high currents on demand and offers a relatively long service life, even when deep-cycled. AGM is maintenance free, provides good electrical reliability and is lighter than the flooded lead acid type. It stands up well to low temperatures and has a low self-discharge. The leading advantages are a charge that is up to five times faster than the flooded version, and the ability to deep cycle. AGM offers a depth-of-discharge of 80 percent; the flooded, on the other hand, is specified at 50 percent DoD to attain the same cycle life.  The negatives are slightly lower specific energy and higher manufacturing costs that the flooded. AGM has a sweet spot in midsize packs from 30 to 100Ah and is less suitable for large UPS system.  
AGM batteries are commonly built to size and are found in high-end vehicles to run power-hungry accessories such as heated seats, steering wheels, mirrors and windshields. NASCAR and other auto racing leagues choose AGM products because they are vibration resistant. AGM is the preferred battery for upscale motorcycles. Being sealed, AGM reduces acid spilling in an accident, lowers the weight for the same performance and allows installation at odd angles. Because of good performance at cold temperatures, AGM batteries are also used for marine, motor home and robotic applications.
Ever since Cadillac introduced the electric starter motor in 1912, lead acid became the natural choice to crank the engine. The classic flooded type is, however, not robust enough for the start-stop function and most batteries in a micro-hybrid car are AGM. Repeated cycling of a regular flooded type causes a sharp capacity fade after two years of use. See Heat, Loading and Battery Life.
As with all gelled and sealed units, AGM batteries are sensitive to overcharging. These batteries can be charged to 2.40V/cell (and higher) without problem; however, the float charge should be reduced to between 2.25 and 2.30V/cell (summer temperatures may require lower voltages). Automotive charging systems for flooded lead acid often have a fixed float voltage setting of 14.40V (2.40V/cell), and a direct replacement with a sealed unit could spell trouble by exposing the battery to undue overcharge on a long drive. See Charging Lead Acid.
AGM and other sealed batteries do not like heat and should be installed away from the engine compartment. Manufacturers recommend halting charge if the battery core reaches 49°C (120°F). While regular lead acid batteries need a topping charge every six months to prevent the buildup of sulfation, AGM batteries are less prone to this and can sit in storage for longer before a charge becomes necessary. Table 1 spells out the advantages and limitations of AGM.

Spill-proof through acid encapsulation in matting technology
High specific power, low internal resistance, responsive to load
Up to 5 times faster charge than with flooded technology
Better cycle life than with flooded systems
Water retention (oxygen and hydrogen combine to produce water)
Vibration resistance due to sandwich construction
Stands up well to cold temperature
Higher manufacturing cost than flooded (but cheaper than gel)
Sensitive to overcharging (gel has tighter tolerances than AGM)
Capacity has gradual decline (gel has a performance dome)
Low specific energy
Must be stored in charged condition (less critical than flooded)
Not environmentally friendly (has less electrolyte, lead that flooded)
Table 4: Advantages and limitations AGM. The gel system shares many of the characteristics.

Courtesy Link:- 
Pic- google.com

Thursday, June 12, 2014

Brake Fluids

Everything You Need To Know About Disc Brakes and Brake Fluids

When we talk about high performance vehicles we also think about brakes like Mechanical linked Brakes, Hydraulic Brakes and Air Brakes. My article is totally related to hydraulic disc brake system which is used in Indian motorcycles. Extensive usage of Disc Brakes in Motorcycle,  neglected brake service due to cost of spares, lack of knowledge about servicing and so on.
The image describes how a disc brake works. So lets not discuss about it’s working principle. But lets think about the material we use and get for that. Caliper & master cylinder we get from company is made up of aluminum and we use DOT 3 or 4 fluid for activation and so company recommends that too.
DOT 3 and 4 only grades for hydraulic brakes? No, A total of four grades are available DOT 3,4,5 and 5.1.
§  DOT 3 or 4 (Glycol Based): Maximum we use these fluids in our motorcycle. Well because we know only about those two grades and we get only these two grades.
§  DOT 5 (Silicone Based): Yet to come in India. (Not suitable for ABS)
§  DOT 5.1 (Glycol Based): Either not available in India but this fluid has HIGH BOILING POINT and can mix with DOT3 or 4. So this is the best fluid for our units.
Why we require servicing of disc brake? Well DOT 3/4 fluids are very high hygroscopic fluids (hygroscopic=which means they absorb water easily and hold it in suspension). When we apply disc brake at that time it boils at very low temp due to that it expands the internal air which is in heat expansion chamber (this chamber is in the reservoir below the master cylinder cap, and above the MAX. level of fluid) When air get heats up due to the internal temp. It also cools down. As we know when air heats up what happens to it. It becomes steam but after cooling it becomes water. As I told you before about hygroscopic characteristic of fluid means it can mix with water easily. Generally our mechanic says that the water is entering from the hole which is given for breathing purpose. But NO, that is not the only reason. Heat, cold & moisture is the reason behind all mess.
The material which companies are using for caliper and master cylinder is aluminum or sort of aluminum alloy. Aluminum never get rusted but get affected by water so that shows deposition of oxidation on the surface. In the master cylinder when fluid mix with the water that affects the master cylinder body and starts the oxidation reaction. The oxidation will never mix with fluid but floats on the surface or sticks to cylinder wall or it goes to the main track till caliper. And here you feel bad brakes. First brake fluid becomes black due to temperature & operation, secondly oxidation clogs the track. Result: Bad and hard brake lever so no brake at all.
So first of all service the brake system thoroughly and change the brake fluid at least 4 times in a year. The level given on the master cylinder is not to refill the fluid but that indicates the brakes pads wear and tear. So if the fluid is less then change the brake pads as fast as possible. (In the cars pad wear indication is scratchy noise made by steel plate).
Fluid level will come back to normal. Brake fluid never decreases by any chance unless and until if there is any accident. But at normal usage pads start wearing. A professional rider changes brake fluid 4 times in a year. So I feel we should switch to DOT 5.1 brake fluid. Soon I will be importing this fluid for disc brake systems.

Always check and clean the disc unit from professional and skilled mechanic. Do not try to attempt this at home if you are unknown to any mechanical parts. You may endanger your or others life by wrong fitments. This article is for awareness only.

Wednesday, June 11, 2014


The name K&N Filters has long been standing for one of the best air filters for automobiles known to man. It’s made of high quality; it improves performance while at the same time increases engine efficiency. How does it work? Read on as we find out.

How It Works: Factory fitted air-filters are designed in a way that filters maximum possible dirt particles from the air before in enters the engine, the main drawback here is the factory fitted air filters restrict air flow to the engine because of its high filtration capacity and thickness. Here is where the K&N fills the gap, It provides the ideal balance of filtration and air flow, the end result being better engine performance and efficiency, one might wonder if this increase in air flow would sacrifice air filtration. It doesn’t. The secret of the K&N filter is in its material, if you have seen one, you would know that it’s made of something different.
We managed to contact Cynthia Wert, who is the International Account Manager for K&N Engineering Inc, this is what she had to say on the filtration capabilities of the K&N air filter.
“The filter is meant to separate dirt and dust particles, and not air molecules, which get suspended in the air, range in size from 5-120 microns (some larger, some smaller), which would cause premature wear, damage, or catastrophic failure to an internal combustion engine, if ingested. The largest of the molecules we are discussing are Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Water (H2O). A CO2 molecule has an average width of 3.42 Angstrom, and an H2O molecule has an average width of 2.11 Angstrom. A CO2 particle measuring 3.42 Angstrom across is equivalent to 0.000342 microns, and an H2O particle would be 0.000211 microns. For comparison, ISO Test Dust, which we use to test our air filters, is made up of a distribution of different size particles, of which the smallest are 1-5 microns. Nitrogen molecules in the atmosphere are diatomic (N2) and have an average width of 2.20 Angstrom, or 0.000220 microns.”
In short K&N filters would do a better job in filtration that the factory fitted one, eliminating the drawbacks of the same. If you’re planning to purchase a K&N, be sure to go with an authentic one, here is how you verify the authenticity as mentioned by by George Hsieh from the K&N Tech Support: Every K&N air filter has 1 or 2, 6 digit mould number on the rubber base or top of the air filter. This will tell you whether the filter is authentic.
Owning a K&N; Care and Maintenance: Cleaning a K&N is very simple. For cleaning there are no kilometer intervals. But in general, the company recommends cleaning the filters every 40,000 kms, cleaning is also advised based on visual inspection. Every K&N has a cotton mesh as well as wire mesh. As per company recommendation, if the wire mesh is not visible then is the time for cleaning. The company also provides special cleaning kit which includes a cleaning solution (solvent) and an oil. Any other oil is not recommended for K&N and the same goes for cleaning liquids or agents.
Here is the procedure of cleaning the filter.
  • Step 1. Remove the filter from carburettor or air box.
  • Step 2. Spray the given solution on filter surface from inner side and outer side.
  • Step 3. Keep the filter untouched till maximum 10 minutes.
  • Step 4. Wash the filter in plain water without pressure. (Small quantity of Liquid Soap is permissible for washing, then apply plain regular water to clean and remove the soapy water)
  • Step 5. If there is any dirt remaining on the filter body then repeat the step 2.
  • Step 6. After washing the filter in the water keep the filter for drying. Natural drying is advisable for K&N filters to avoid the damages. (Do not use compressed air, that will damage the cotton mesh)
  • Step 7. Before applying oil, make sure the filter is completely dry. After drying the filter, apply the given K&N oil on outer surface. Do not use the oil from inner side.
  • Step 8. Refit the filter.
Ready to use. Enjoy the Performance.

Tuesday, June 10, 2014

High and Low Profile Tyres for Two Wheelers

Tyres and Wheel Rims have always been a point of discussion when we look at any motorcycle. We often hear about low and high profile tyres many times when we speak to both car and bike enthusiasts. But we can get confused when we’re at the tire Shoppe looking for a good low profile tire that would suit our machine. I know even I used to get confused. Hence we would require a little attention to understand the word “LOW PROFILE”.
So, A tyre has got some dimensions for example height, width, thickness etc. In order to fit Low profiles tires on a bike, we must first understand the fact that tyres depend on wheel rims. I mean to say both the tire and the rims must be compatible with each other. Confusing?…Well yes it can be, but a tyre dealer would take advantage of your confusion and sell tires which he would claim to be low profile but in reality would be high profile ones.
In simple language, A low profile tyre means tyres which are short in height. We could find such tyres at most tyre shops but we could to forget to check whether our motorcycle has got suitable rims for low profile tyres or not. For example FZ, P200 has got rims which are suitable for low profile tyres. I have seen people running low profile tyres on an R15 rear wheel, It was amazing how they managed to fix it on the rear rim which was designed for use with high profile tyres. That very fact can be explained by understanding that a Tyre is made up of a flexible material which is mainly RUBBER. That means it can stretch or can be pressed. Lets check the figure or the drawing. The drawing which I am showing is just for understanding and reference purposes.
Fig no.1 Shows us rims from the R15 and FZ
Fig no. 2 Explains the width and height of the tyre from the R15 and FZ.
The R15 rim has got a smaller width than an FZ rim. Now consider fitting an FZ tyre on R15 rim. Think…
Check fig no.3 now consider fitting of a FZ tyre on R15 rim. What will happen? It will fit but lets see the height and width of a FZ tyre on R15 rim….Remember The FZ has got a low profile tyre.(I know R15 tyre will not fit on FZ rim…anyways) So as you can see the change. The Tyre can be fitted on R15 Rim but the design of the rim would make such a tire look like high profile ones. What you had on the FZ would change into High Profile. The tyre becomes high in height and low on width. So the meaning of a LOW PROFILE TYRE has been lost.
This change in profile happened due to the RIM. When the rim is broader, you can go for low profile tyres which are suitable for the rim. But if the rim is small in width then the tyre should be in that ratio only. So a ratio between rim width and tyre height is one of the important criteria.
A change in tyre other than manufacturer’s recommendation would also bring with it various other changes such as ride height and performance. We also need to remember that as the ride height increases, the tendency for the pillion to be hurled forward increases when the front disc brakes are applied. Therefore we can’t ignore gravity, inertia and the load of the bike. The handling of the bike would also change according to the tire which in severe cases would result in accidents.
Aesthetics are not the only principles of a motorcycle, there are lots of other crucial factors to be aware of. Do not mess with the geometry of the bike without having done prior research on its outcomes. Small changes can often make huge differences. Always Ride Safely…And Enjoy Life.

Monday, June 9, 2014

Increasing The Torque for Four Stroke Motorcycles

Torque the word itself suggest power from core. Earlier we had large number of two stroke engines in Indian market. These engines were known for it’s true nature – Power. Well let’s not talk about details about it’s Engineering. Lets talk about some of the spare which was helping to increase the engine torque.
Reed Valve, the main spare of two stroke engine which was contributing it’s help to increase the torque. This spare was also known as a NRV (Non-Return Valve), which was closing the door of intake manifold from inner side when piston used to start towards BTDC. That means keeping the charged Air/Fuel Mixture in the crank and pressurised it. Now in this case torque used to get high due to perfect quantity of AF (Air/Fuel) mixture.
Lets merge the same with four stroke engine now. In four stroke engine if you notice when piston about to come TDC position the Internal AF tries to back out from the same inlet valve, due to that the charge mixture comes back out from carburetor venturi, which causes black spots on the carburetor and lack of fuel to burn, that means lack of torque. So here mixing and merging some spares from two stroke engine to four stroke engine, in simple language putting Reed Valve on four stroke engine.
As per my experience when I did this engineering I found the bike stopped backfiring, back kicking, smell of fuel and good power. I used the same concept of Reed Valve. After some engineering I did put on reed valve when piston used to travel from BTDC to TDC the Reed Valve gets closed and keeps the charge AF in the chamber due to that I found great change in power.
Though the fixing of the carburetor with reed valve was temporarily, it was just for testing purpose. But the result was great. Basically, in two stroke engine reed valve acts when piston is coming towards BTDC, but here in four stroke engine it acts when the piston is coming to TDC position. When piston comes from BTDC to TDC in that case Valve never get fully closed so due to that piston somehow reverse the main AF to inlet manifold or till the air filter. But after Reed Valve it stopped reversing the AF till Carburetor. That means fully charged AF for burning and torque.

Saturday, June 7, 2014

Engine Oils

What is the meaning of oil? A dictionary would define it as any one of a great variety of unctuous combustible substances, not miscible with water. Oil – It is one of the most important part of an engine. What blood is to us humans is what oil is to engines. Oil serves several important functions in an engine mainly lubrication, cooling, efficiency, anti-rust agent, protection etc.
What oil does for the motor is generally known to all. But what is relatively unknown are the different standards and quality of oil that are available in the market. There are several different ways of ascertaining the properties of an oil the most commonly used ones are the codes such as SAE, JASO, MA, MA2, 20W40, 20W50, 10W30 etc. etc.
These codes are usually found on oil containers for the purpose of easy identification and classification.

  • API – American Petroleum Institute
  • JASO – The Japanese Automotive Standards Organization
  • “S” grade stands for Petrol vehicles. (Sprak Ignition)
  • “C” grade stands for Diesel vehicles.(Compression)
  • “W” for winter
  • Multi grade
  • Single grade
  • EP – Extra Pressure
  • SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers
  • MA – Grade for Wet Clutch type vehicles (HIGH FRICTION VEHICLES. Non Clutch Slipping Oil)
  • MA2- next version of MA(HIGH FRICTION VEHICLES Non Clutch Slipping Oil)
[MA or MA2 means you are guaranteed that the clutch won't slip]
Multi grade Oil: Suitable for both vehicles like Diesel and petrol/LPG/CNG.
Single Grade Oil: Suitable for petrol or diesel, depending on oil grade.
EP or Extra Pressure is suitable for only gearbox applications. This grade type is not suitable as an engine oil and is also not suited for gear boxes of two stroke engines. In two stroke engines, regular engine oil is recommended as per the manufacturer.
Petrol Engine Grades :- SA, SB, SC, SD, SE, SF, SG, SH, SJ, SL, SM.
Diesel Engine Grades :- CA, CB, CC, CD, CD-II, CE, CF, CF-2, CF-4, CG-4, CH-4, CI-4, CJ-4.
We all have motorcycles with petrol engines, hence the manufacturer would only recommend “S” grade oils In which, most people prefer API/SAE-SL/SM (JASO MA or MA2). SM is relatively a good grade of oil which has better oxidation resistance, deposit protection, wear protection and low temperature performance.
There are a lot of imported oils suitable for Indian motorcycles. But one thing to remember is that foreign bikes and riding conditions differ from Indian ones so those oils would be more suitable for higher CC engines and not Indian motorcycles also most vehicles abroad employ dry clutch systems for which a different grade of oil would be recommended by the manufacturer when compared to Indian bikes because in Indian we only have motorcycles with wet clutch systems, which highlights the fact that the best oil for your bike would be the manufacturer recommended grade. But that isn’t the end of the story here as we can use grades of slightly better quality provided it falls in the same category. For example if the manufacturer recommended oil grade is API SL(JASO MA) and if, in the market, the oil company introduces a newer grade of the same oil like API SM (JASO MA2), then we could buy it.
Sometimes mechanics pour oil which into petrol engines which are more suited for diesel engines. Hence one needs to ensure the grade of the oil used starts with the letter “S” (e.g. SC,SM). If the mechanic uses something else, it would be best to help him understand the grade types.
For better understanding refer to the following information on the qualities of various grades.
  1. 0° C(32° F) – 5W-20, 5W-30, 10W-30,10W-40,20W-50
  2. -18° C (0° F) – 5W-20, 5W-30, 10W-30, 10W-40.
  3. BELOW -18° C ( 0° F) – 5W-20, 5W-30.
The above represents the temperature below which the consistency of the oil would deteriorate.
In the same grade, there are a few more different type of oils based on their contents, for example mineral, semi synthetic and synthetic.
  • What are mineral oils? 
    Mineral oils are based on oil that comes from our dear old Mother Earth which has been refined. In simple language NATURAL OIL.
  • What are Synthetic oils?
    Synthetic oils are entirely concocted by chemists wearing white lab coats in oil company laboratories. In simple language ARTIFICIAL OIL
  • What is the meaning of Semi Synthetic Oil?
    Semi-synthetic oil, is a mixture of natural and artificial oils. It is safe to mix the different types, but it’s wiser to switch completely to a new type rather than mixing.
It is good to use flushing liquids before our mechanic friend pours in new oil. Usage of flushing liquids are advisable once or twice a year, It also depends on kilometers covered. Do not use kerosene, diesel or petrol as a flushing liquid for removing carbon. It may damage the bearing surface and it’s oil filming. Please read all the intsructions before using flushing agents.
Do not mix mineral oil with synthetic or semi synthetic when we top up the oil level. New grade oils have better detergents that remove the carbon content. So try to use new grades rather than old. Do not use car engine oils for motorcycle purpose. That may harm the motor. Car engine oils content with friction reducers. Two wheeler engine oils – specifically four stroke engines with a wet clutch multi plate setup do not need oils with friction reducers as they can increase or decrease the friction, If we use friction reducer then the clutch will start slipping fast at high rpm or at the time or heavy load and high torque.
Soon we will be hearing about ILSAC grades:- International Lubrication Standard Advisory Committee. Due to limitations we can’t publish a detailed oil grade chart. In the market there are lots of Oil companies, with various different types of oils for almost all types of engines so producing a detailed list would be really time consuming. I would, later on, post a chart on the most common and important oil grades.